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  1. The typical methodology for comparing simulated galaxies with observational surveys is usually to apply a spatial selection to the simulation to mimic the region of interest covered by a comparable observational survey sample. In this work we compare this approach with a more sophisticated post-processing in which the observational uncertainties and selection effects (photometric, surface gravity and effective temperature) are taken into account. We compare a `solar neighbourhood analogue' region in a model Milky Way-like galaxy simulated with RAMSES-CH with fourth release Gaia-ESO survey data. We find that a simple spatial cut alone is insufficient and that observational uncertainties must be accounted for in the comparison. This is particularly true when the scale of uncertainty is large compared to the dynamic range of the data, e.g. in our comparison, the [Mg/Fe] distribution is affected much more than the more accurately determined [Fe/H] distribution. Despite clear differences in the underlying distributions of elemental abundances between simulation and observation, incorporating scatter to our simulation results to mimic observational uncertainty produces reasonable agreement. The quite complete nature of the Gaia-ESO survey means that the selection function has minimal impact on the distribution of observed age and metal abundances but this would become increasingly more important for surveys with narrower selection functions.
  2. We present our models of the effect of binaries on high-resolution spectroscopic surveys. We want to determine how many binary stars will be observed, whether unresolved binaries will contaminate measurements of chemical abundances, and how we can use spectroscopic surveys to better constrain the population of binary stars in the Galaxy. Using a rapid binary-evolution algorithm that enables modelling of the most complex binary systems we generate a series of large binary populations in the Galactic disc and evaluate the results. As a first application we use our model to study the binary fraction in APOGEE giants. We find tentative evidence for a change in binary fraction with metallicity.
  3. Context. Due to their volatile nature, when sulphur and zinc are observed in external galaxies, their determined abundances represent the gas-phase abundances in the interstellar medium. This implies that they can be used as tracers of the chemical enrichment of matter in the Universe at high redshift. Comparable observations in stars are more difficult and, until recently, plagued by small number statistics.
    Aims: We wish to exploit the Gaia-ESO Survey (GES) data to study the behaviour of sulphur and zinc abundances of a large number of Galactic stars, in a homogeneous way.
    Methods: By using the UVES spectra of the GES sample, we are able to assemble a sample of 1301 Galactic stars, including stars in open and globular clusters in which both sulphur and zinc were measured.
    Results: We confirm the results from the literature that sulphur behaves as an α-element. We find a large scatter in [Zn/Fe] ratios among giant stars around solar metallicity. The lower ratios are observed in giant stars at Galactocentric distances less than 7.5 kpc. No such effect is observed among dwarf stars, since they do not extend to that radius.
    Conclusions: Given the sample selection, giants and dwarfs are observed at different Galactic locations, and it is plausible, and compatible with simple calculations, that Zn-poor giants trace a younger population more polluted by SN Ia yields. It is necessary to extend observations in order to observe both giants and dwarfs at the same Galactic location. Further theoretical work on the evolution of zinc is also necessary. Based on observations collected at the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere under ESO programmes 188.B-3002, 193.B-0936.The full table of S abundances is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/604/A128
  4. GES internal star identifier (CNAME), Sulphur abundances and NLTE corrections to the Sulphur abundances for 1301 stars. Sulphur abundances are expressed in the customary logarithmic form: A(S)=log_10(N(S)/N(H))+12. The abundances delivered are the LTE ones. NLTEabundances can be determined by directly summing the NLTE correction delivered: A(S)NLTE = A(S) + NLTEC. So that a negative NLTE correction indicates that the NLTE abundance is lower than the LTE one. (1 data file).
  5. We study the chemical evolution of the thick and thin discs of the Galaxy by comparing detailed chemical evolution models with recent data from the AMBRE Project. The data suggest that the stars in the thick and thin discs form two distinct sequences with the thick disc stars showing higher [{\alpha}/Fe] ratios. We adopt two different approaches to model the evolution of thick and thin discs. In particular, we adopt: i) a two-infall approach where the thick disc forms fast and before the thin disc and by means of a fast gas accretion episode, whereas the thin disc forms by means of a second accretion episode on a longer timescale; ii) a parallel approach, where the two discs form in parallel but at different rates. By comparing our model results with the observed [Mg/Fe] vs. [Fe/H] and the metallicity distribution functions in the two Galactic components, we conclude that the parallel approach can account for a group of {\alpha}-enhanced metal rich stars present in the data, whereas the two-infall approach cannot explain these stars unless they are the result of stellar migration. In both approaches, the thick disc has formed on a timescale of accretion of 0.1 Gyr, whereas the thin disc formed on a timescale of 7 Gyr in the solar region. In the two-infall approach a gap in star formation between the thick and thin disc formation of several hundreds of Myr should be present, at variance with the parallel approach where no gap is present.
  6. Context. The spatial distribution of elemental abundances in the disc of our Galaxy gives insights both on its assembly process and subsequent evolution, and on the stellar nucleogenesis of the different elements. Gradients can be traced using several types of objects as, for instance, (young and old) stars, open clusters, HII regions, planetary nebulae.
    Aims: We aim to trace the radial distributions of abundances of elements produced through different nucleosynthetic channels - the α-elements O, Mg, Si, Ca and Ti, and the iron-peak elements Fe, Cr, Ni and Sc - by use of the Gaia-ESO IDR4 results for open clusters and young-field stars.
    Methods: From the UVES spectra of member stars, we have determined the average composition of clusters with ages > 0.1 Gyr. We derived statistical ages and distances of field stars. We traced the abundance gradients using the cluster and field populations and compared them with a chemo-dynamical Galactic evolutionary model.
    Results: The adopted chemo-dynamical model, with the new generation of metallicity-dependent stellar yields for massive stars, is able to reproduce the observed spatial distributions of abundance ratios, in particular the abundance ratios of [O/Fe] and [Mg/Fe] in the inner disc (5 kpc GC< 7 kpc), with their differences, that were usually poorly explained by chemical evolution models.
    Conclusions: Oxygen and magnesium are often considered to be equivalent in tracing α-element abundances and in deducing, for example, the formation timescales of different Galactic stellar populations. In addition, often [α/Fe] is computed combining several α-elements. Our results indicate, as expected, a complex and diverse nucleosynthesis of the various α-elements, in particular in the high metallicity regimes, pointing towards a different origin of these elements and highlighting the risk of considering them as a single class with common features. Tables A.1-A.4 are also available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/603/A2
  7. We take advantage of the Gaia-ESO Survey iDR4 bulge data to search for abundance anomalies that could shed light on the composite nature of the Milky Way bulge. The α-element (Mg, Si, and whenever available, Ca) abundances, and their trends with Fe abundances have been analysed for a total of 776 bulge stars. In addition, the aluminum abundances and their ratio to Fe and Mg have also been examined. Our analysis reveals the existence of low-α element abundance stars with respect to the standard bulge sequence in the [α/ Fe] versus [Fe/H] plane. Eighteen objects present deviations in [α/ Fe] ranging from 2.1 to 5.3σ with respect to the median standard value. Those stars do not show Mg-Al anti-correlation patterns. Incidentally, this sign of the existence of multiple stellar populations is reported firmly for the first time for the bulge globular cluster NGC 6522. The identified low-α abundance stars have chemical patterns that are compatible with those of the thin disc. Their link with massive dwarf galaxies accretion seems unlikely, as larger deviations in α abundance and Al would be expected. The vision of a bulge composite nature and a complex formation process is reinforced by our results. The approach used, which is a multi-method and model-driven analysis of high resolution data, seems crucial to reveal this complexity. Based on data products from observations made with ESO Telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory under programme ID 188.B-3002. These data products have been processed by the Cambridge Astronomy Survey Unit (CASU) at the Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, and by the FLAMES/UVES reduction team at INAF/Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri. These data have been obtained from the Gaia-ESO Survey Data Archive, and prepared and hosted by the Wide Field Astronomy Unit, Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, which is funded by the UK Science and Technology Facilities Council.
  8. Data for GES are taken with the Fiber Large Array Multi-Element Spectrograph (FLAMES) on the VLT at the European Southern Observatory. FLAMES has two instruments, the medium-resolution multi-object spectrograph GIRAFFE and the high-resolution Ultraviolet and Visual Echelle Spectrograph (UVES). For intermediate-age OCs with prominent red clumps, GES targets are selected as follows: likely clump stars are observed with UVES, so that the most time-intensive targets are most likely to be members, followed by probable red giants if the clump is sparse. Main sequence stars down to V=19 are observed with GIRAFFE, using the HR9B setup primarily for stars of spectral type A to F and the HR15N setup for cooler stars. General GES target selection methods are outlined in Bragaglia et al. (in prep.). (6 data files).
  9. Context. As observational evidence steadily accumulates, the nature of the Galactic bulge has proven to be rather complex: the structural, kinematic, and chemical analyses often lead to contradictory conclusions. The nature of the metal-rich bulge - and especially of the metal-poor bulge - and their relation with other Galactic components, still need to be firmly defined on the basis of statistically significant high-quality data samples.
    Aims: We used the fourth internal data release of the Gaia-ESO survey to characterize the bulge metallicity distribution function (MDF), magnesium abundance, spatial distribution, and correlation of these properties with kinematics. Moreover, the homogeneous sampling of the different Galactic populations provided by the Gaia-ESO survey allowed us to perform a comparison between the bulge, thin disk, and thick disk sequences in the [Mg/Fe] vs. [Fe/H] plane in order to constrain the extent of their eventual chemical similarities.
    Methods: We obtained spectroscopic data for 2500 red clump stars in 11 bulge fields, sampling the area -10° ≤ l ≤ + 8° and -10° ≤ b ≤ -4° from the fourth internal data release of the Gaia-ESO survey. A sample of 6300 disk stars was also selected for comparison. Spectrophotometric distances computed via isochrone fitting allowed us to define a sample of stars likely located in the bulge region.
    Results: From a Gaussian mixture models (GMM) analysis, the bulge MDF is confirmed to be bimodal across the whole sampled area. The relative ratio between the two modes of the MDF changes as a function of b, with metal-poor stars dominating at high latitudes. The metal-rich stars exhibit bar-like kinematics and display a bimodality in their magnitude distribution, a feature which is tightly associated with the X-shape bulge. They overlap with the metal-rich end of the thin disk sequence in the [Mg/Fe] vs. [Fe/H] plane. On the other hand, metal-poor bulge stars have a more isotropic hot kinematics and do not participate in the X-shape bulge. Their Mg enhancement level and general shape in the [Mg/Fe] vs. [Fe/H] plane is comparable to that of the thick disk sequence. The position at which [Mg/Fe] starts to decrease with [Fe/H], called the "knee", is observed in the metal-poor bulge at [Fe/H] knee = -0.37 ± 0.09, being 0.06 dex higher than that of the thick disk. Although this difference is inside the error bars, it suggest a higher star formation rate (SFR) for the bulge than for the thick disk. We estimate an upper limit for this difference of Δ [Fe/H] knee = 0.24 dex. Finally, we present a chemical evolution model that suitably fits the whole bulge sequence by assuming a fast (<1 Gyr) intense burst of stellar formation that takes place at early epochs.
    Conclusions: We associate metal-rich stars with the bar boxy/peanut bulge formed as the product of secular evolution of the early thin disk. On the other hand, the metal-poor subpopulation might be the product of an early prompt dissipative collapse dominated by massive stars. Nevertheless, our results do not allow us to firmly rule out the possibility that these stars come from the secular evolution of the early thick disk. This is the first time that an analysis of the bulge MDF and α-abundances has been performed in a large area on the basis of a homogeneous, fully spectroscopic analysis of high-resolution, high S/N data. Based on data products from observations made with ESO Telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory under programme ID 188.B-3002. These data products have been processed by the Cambridge Astronomy Survey Unit (CASU) at the Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, and by the FLAMES/UVES reduction team at INAF/Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri. These data have been obtained from the Gaia-ESO Survey Data Archive, prepared and hosted by the Wide Field Astronomy Unit, Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, which is funded by the UK Science and Technology Facilities Council.
  10. We use Gaia-ESO (GES) Survey iDR4 data to explore the Mg-Al anti-correlation in globular clusters that were observed as calibrators, as a demonstration of the quality of Gaia-ESO Survey data and analysis. The results compare well with the available literature, within 0.1 dex or less, after a small (compared to the internal spreads) offset between the UVES and GIRAFFE data of 0.10-0.15 dex was taken into account. In particular, for the first time we present data for NGC 5927, which is one of the most metal-rich globular clusters studied in the literature so far with [ Fe / H ] = - 0.39 ± 0.04 dex; this cluster was included to connect with the open cluster regime in the Gaia-ESO Survey internal calibration. The extent and shape of the Mg-Al anti-correlation provide strong constraints on the multiple population phenomenon in globular clusters. In particular, we studied the dependency of the Mg-Al anti-correlation extension with metallicity, present-day mass,and age of the clusters, using GES data in combination with a large set of homogenized literature measurements.We find a dependency with both metallicity and mass, which is evident when fitting for the two parameters simultaneously, but we do not find significant dependency with age. We confirm that the Mg-Al anti-correlation is not seen in all clusters, but disappears for the less massive or most metal-rich clusters. We also use our data set to see whether a normal anti-correlation would explain the low [Mg/α] observed in some extragalactic globular clusters, but find that none of the clusters in our sample can reproduce it; a more extreme chemical composition, such as that of NGC 2419, would be required. We conclude that GES iDR4 data already meet the requirements set by the main survey goals and can be used to study globular clusters in detail, even if the analysis procedures were not specifically designed for them. Based on data products from observations made with ESO Telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory under programme ID 188.B-3002.Full Table 2 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/601/A112
  11. Milky Way open clusters are very diverse in terms of age, chemical composition, and kinematic properties. Intermediate-age and old open clusters are less common, and it is even harder to find them inside the solar Galactocentric radius, due to the high mortality rate and strong extinction inside this region. NGC 6802 is one of the inner disk open clusters (IOCs) observed by the Gaia-ESO survey (GES). This cluster is an important target for calibrating the abundances derived in the survey due to the kinematic and chemical homogeneity of the members in open clusters. Using the measurements from Gaia-ESO internal data release 4 (iDR4), we identify 95 main-sequence dwarfs as cluster members from the GIRAFFE target list, and eight giants as cluster members from the UVES target list. The dwarf cluster members have a median radial velocity of 13.6 ± 1.9 km s-1, while the giant cluster members have a median radial velocity of 12.0 ± 0.9 km s-1 and a median [Fe/H] of 0.10 ± 0.02 dex. The color-magnitude diagram of these cluster members suggests an age of 0.9 ± 0.1 Gyr, with (m-M)0 = 11.4 and E(B-V) = 0.86. We perform the first detailed chemical abundance analysis of NGC 6802, including 27 elemental species. To gain a more general picture about IOCs, the measurements of NGC 6802 are compared with those of other IOCs previously studied by GES, that is, NGC 4815, Trumpler 20, NGC 6705, and Berkeley 81. NGC 6802 shows similar C, N, Na, and Al abundances as other IOCs. These elements are compared with nucleosynthetic models as a function of cluster turn-off mass. The α, iron-peak, and neutron-capture elements are also explored in a self-consistent way. Full Tables A.3-A.6 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/601/A56
  12. We present the stellar parameters, distances, ages, heights, radial velocities and abundances used in the present work. In Table A.1 we present the stellar parameters and radial velocities of the selected member stars in open clusters, while in Table A.2 their elemental abundances. In Table A.3 we show the stellar parameters, ages, distances and heights on the Galactic plane of the solar neighbourhood sample of field stars and of the inner disc stars. In Table A.4 we present their elemental abundances in the 12+log(X/H) form. (4 data files).
  13. Context. The pattern of chemical abundance ratios in stellar populations of the Milky Way is a fingerprint of the Galactic chemical history. In order to interpret such chemical fossils of Galactic archaeology, chemical evolution models have to be developed. However, despite the complex physics included in the most recent models, significant discrepancies between models and observations are widely encountered.
    Aims: The aim of this paper is to characterise the abundance patterns of five iron-peak elements (Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, and Zn) for which the stellar origin and chemical evolution are still debated.
    Methods: We automatically derived iron peak (Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, and Zn) and α element (Mg) chemical abundances for 4666 stars, adopting classical LTE spectral synthesis and 1D atmospheric models. Our observational data collection is composed of high-resolution, high signal-to-noise ratios HARPS and FEROS spectra, which were previously parametrised by the AMBRE project.
    Results: We used the bimodal distribution of the magnesium-to-iron abundance ratios to chemically classify our sample stars into different Galactic substructures: thin disc, metal-poor and high-α metal rich, high-α, and low-α metal-poor populations. Both high-α and low-α metal-poor populations are fully distinct in Mg, Cu, and Zn, but these substructures are statistically indistinguishable in Mn and Ni. Thin disc trends of [Ni/Fe] and [Cu/Fe] are very similar and show a small increase at supersolar metallicities. Also, both thin and thick disc trends of Ni and Cu are very similar and indistinguishable. Yet, Mn looks very different from Ni and Cu. [Mn/Fe] trends of thin and thick discs actually have noticeable differences: the thin disc is slightly Mn richer than the thick disc. The [Zn/Fe] trends look very similar to those of [α/Fe] trends. The typical dispersion of results in both discs is low (≈0.05 dex for [Mg, Mn, and Cu/Fe]) and is even much lower for [Ni/Fe] (≈0.035 dex).
    Conclusions: It is clearly demonstrated that Zn is an α-like element and could be used to separate thin and thick disc stars. Moreover, we show that the [Mn/Mg] ratio could also be a very good tool for tagging Galactic substructures. From the comparison with Galactic chemical evolutionary models, we conclude that some recent models can partially reproduce the observed Mg, Zn, and, Cu behaviours in thin and thick discs and metal-poor sequences. Models mostly fail to reproduce Mn and Ni in all metallicity domains, however, models adopting yields normalised from solar chemical properties reproduce Mn and Ni better, suggesting that there is still a lack of realistic theoretical yields of some iron-peak elements. The very low scatter (≈0.05 dex) in thin and thick disc sequences could provide an observational constrain for Galactic evolutionary models that study the efficiency of stellar radial migration. Based on observations collected at ESO telescopes under the AMBRE programme. Full Table 5 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/600/A22
  14. List of globular clusters analyzed in this paper, with basic properties. List of the 510 stars that were selected from GES iDR4 as probable members and analyzed in this paper. (2 data files).
  15. Several recent studies of solar twins in the solar neighbourhood have shown a tight correlation between various elemental abundances and age, in particular [Y/Mg]. If this relation is real and valid for other types of stars as well as elsewhere in the Galaxy, it would provide a very powerful tool to derive ages of stars without the need to resort to determining their masses (evolutionary stage) very precisely. The method would also likely work if the stellar parameters have relatively large errors. The studies presented in the recent literature span a narrow range of [Fe/H]. By studying a larger sample of solar neighbourhood dwarfs with a much larger range of [Fe/H], we find that the relation between [Y/Mg] and age depends on the [Fe/H] of the stars. Hence, it appears that the [Y/Mg]-age relation is unique to solar analogues.
  16. Context. Trumpler 23 is a moderately populated, intermediate-age open cluster within the solar circle at a RGC 6 kpc. It is in a crowded field very close to the Galactic plane and the color-magnitude diagram shows significant field contamination and possible differential reddening; it is a relatively understudied cluster for these reasons, but its location makes it a key object for determining Galactic abundance distributions.
    Aims: New data from the Gaia-ESO Survey enable the first ever radial velocity and spectroscopic metallicity measurements for this cluster. We aim to use velocities to isolate cluster members, providing more leverage for determining cluster parameters.
    Methods: Gaia-ESO Survey data for 167 potential members have yielded radial velocity measurements, which were used to determine the systemic velocity of the cluster and membership of individual stars. Atmospheric parameters were also used as a check on membership when available. Literature photometry was used to re-determine cluster parameters based on radial velocity member stars only; theoretical isochrones are fit in the V, V-I diagram. Cluster abundance measurements of ten radial-velocity member stars with high-resolution spectroscopy are presented for 24 elements. These abundances have been compared to local disk stars, and where possible placed within the context of literature gradient studies.
    Results: We find Trumpler 23 to have an age of 0.80 ± 0.10 Gyr, significant differential reddening with an estimated mean cluster E(V-I) of 1.02, and an apparent distance modulus of 14.15 ± 0.20. We find an average cluster metallicity of [Fe/H] = 0.14 ± 0.03 dex, a solar [α/Fe] abundance, and notably subsolar [s-process/Fe] abundances.
  17. Table 5 contains Chemical abundances of iron-peak elements and magnesium in the solar neighbourhood. (1 data file).
  18. The dwarf stars in NGC 6802 observed by GIRAFFE spectrograph are separated into four tables: 1. cluster members in the lower main sequence; 2. cluster members in the upper main sequence; 3. non-member dwarfs in the lower main sequence; 4. non-member dwarfs in the upper main sequence. The star coordinates, V band magnitude, V-I color, and radial velocity are given. (4 data files).
  19. High-resolution spectral analysis is performed for the first time in evolved stars of two young open clusters: NGC 4609 and NGC 5316, of about 80 and 100 Myr in age, respectively, and turn-off masses above 5 M. Stellar evolution models predict an extra-mixing event in evolved stars, which follows the first dredge-up and happens later on the red giant branch. However, it is still not understood how this process affects stars of different masses. In this study, we determine abundances of the mixing sensitive elements carbon and nitrogen, carbon isotope 12C/13C ratios, as well as 20 other elements produced by different nucleosynthetic processes (O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Y, Zr, Ba, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, and Eu). We compared our results with the latest theoretical models of evolutionary mixing processes. We find that the obtained 12C/13C and C/N ratios and [Na/Fe] agree quite well with the model which takes into account thermohaline- and rotation-induced mixing but within error limits also agree with the standard first dredge-up model. Comparison of oxygen, magnesium, and other α-elements with theoretical models of Galactic chemical evolution revealed that both clusters follow the thin disc α-element trends. Neutron-capture element abundances in NGC 4609 are apparently reflecting its birthplace in the thin disc, while NGC 5316 has marginally higher abundances, which would indicate its birthplace in an environment more enriched with neutron-capture elements.
  20. We present the current status of CNO abundance investigations in evolved stars of Galactic open clusters observed in the currently ongoing Gaia-ESO survey. The spectra were observed with the VLT UVES spectrograph and analysed using a differential model atmosphere method. The C/N ratios of stars in the investigated open clusters were compared with the ratios predicted by stellar evolutionary models. For the corresponding stellar turn-off masses from 1.15 to 3.3 M, the observed C/N ratio values are close to the predictions of standard first dredge-up and thermohaline extra-mixing models. The recent model in which the thermohaline- and rotation-induced extra-mixing act together seems to provide C/N values that are too low.
  21. Context. The chemical evolution of lithium in the Milky Way represents a major problem in modern astrophysics. Indeed, lithium is, on the one hand, easily destroyed in stellar interiors, and, on the other hand, produced at some specific stellar evolutionary stages that are still not well constrained.
    Aims: The goal of this paper is to investigate the lithium stellar content of Milky Way stars in order to put constraints on the lithium chemical enrichment in our Galaxy, in particular in both the thin and thick discs.
    Methods: Thanks to high-resolution spectra from the ESO archive and high quality atmospheric parameters, we were able to build a massive and homogeneous catalogue of lithium abundances for 7300 stars derived with an automatic method coupling, a synthetic spectra grid, and a Gauss-Newton algorithm. We validated these lithium abundances with literature values, including those of the Gaia benchmark stars.
    Results: In terms of lithium galactic evolution, we show that the interstellar lithium abundance increases with metallicity by 1 dex from [M/H] = -1 dex to + 0.0 dex. Moreover, we find that this lithium ISM abundance decreases by about 0.5 dex at super-solar metalllicity. Based on a chemical separation, we also observed that the stellar lithium content in the thick disc increases rather slightly with metallicity, while the thin disc shows a steeper increase. The lithium abundance distribution of α-rich, metal-rich stars has a peak at ALi ~ 3 dex.
    Conclusions: We conclude that the thick disc stars suffered of a low lithium chemical enrichment, showing lithium abundances rather close to the Spite plateau while the thin disc stars clearly show an increasing lithium chemical enrichment with the metallicity, probably thanks to the contribution of low-mass stars. Full Table 2 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/595/A18

  22. Aims: Our main aim is to determine carbon-to-nitrogen and carbon isotope ratios for evolved giants in the open clusters NGC 2324, NGC 2477, and NGC 3960, which have turn-off masses of about 2 M, and to compare them with predictions of theoretical models.
    Methods: High-resolution spectra were analysed using a differential synthetic spectrum method. Abundances of carbon were derived using the C2 Swan (0, 1) band heads at 5135 and 5635.5 Å. The wavelength interval 7940-8130 Å with strong CN features was analysed to determine nitrogen abundances and carbon isotope ratios. The oxygen abundances were determined from the [O i] line at 6300 Å.
    Results: The mean values of the CNO abundances are [C/Fe] = -0.35 ± 0.06 (s.d.), [N/Fe] = 0.28 ± 0.05, and [O/Fe] = -0.02 ± 0.10 in seven stars of NGC 2324; [C/Fe] = -0.26 ± 0.02, [N/Fe] = 0.39 ± 0.04, and [O/Fe] = -0.11 ± 0.06 in six stars of NGC 2477; and [C/Fe] = -0.39 ± 0.04, [N/Fe] = 0.32 ± 0.05, and [O/Fe] = -0.19 ± 0.06 in six stars of NGC 3960. The mean C/N ratio is equal to 0.92 ± 0.12, 0.91 ± 0.09, and 0.80 ± 0.13, respectively. The mean 12C /13C ratio is equal to 21 ± 1, 20 ± 1, and 16 ± 4, respectively. The 12C /13C and C/N ratios of stars in the investigated open clusters were compared with the ratios predicted by stellar evolution models.
    Conclusions: The mean values of the 12C /13C and C/N ratios in NGC 2324 and NGC 2477 agree well with the first dredge-up and thermohaline-induced extra-mixing models, which are similar for intermediate turn-off mass stars. The 12C /13C ratios in the investigated clump stars of NGC 3960 span from 10 to 20. The mean carbon isotope and C/N ratios in NGC 3960 are close to predictions of the model in which the thermohaline- and rotation-induced (if rotation velocity at the zero-age main sequence was 30% of the critical velocity) extra-mixing act together. Based on observations collected at ESO telescopes under programmes 072.D-0550 and 074.D-0571.
  23. Red giant stars are perhaps the most important type of stars for Galactic and extra-galactic archaeology: they are luminous, occur in all stellar populations, and their surface temperatures allow precise abundance determinations for many different chemical elements. Yet, the full star formation and enrichment history of a galaxy can be traced directly only if two key observables can be determined for large stellar samples: age and chemical composition. While spectroscopy is a powerful method to analyse the detailed abundances of stars, stellar ages are the missing link in the chain, since they are not a direct observable. However, spectroscopy should be able to estimate stellar masses, which for red giants directly infer ages provided their chemical composition is known. Here we establish a new empirical relation between the shape of the hydrogen line in the observed spectra of red giants and stellar mass determined from asteroseismology. The relation allows determining stellar masses and ages with an accuracy of 10-15%. The method can be used with confidence for stars in the following range of stellar parameters: 4000 < Teff < 5000 K, 0.5 < log g< 3.5, -2.0 < [Fe/H] < 0.3, and luminosities log L/LSun < 2.5. Our analysis provides observational evidence that the Hα spectral characteristics of red giant stars are tightly correlated with their mass and therefore their age. We also show that the method samples well all stellar populations with ages above 1 Gyr. Targeting bright giants, the method allows obtaining simultaneous age and chemical abundance information far deeper than would be possible with asteroseismology, extending the possible survey volume to remote regions of the Milky Way and even to neighbouring galaxies such as Andromeda or the Magellanic Clouds even with current instrumentation, such as the VLT and Keck facilities.
  24. The discovery of lithium-rich giants contradicts expectations from canonical stellar evolution. Here we report on the serendipitous discovery of 20 Li-rich giants observed during the Gaia-ESO Survey, which includes the first nine Li-rich giant stars known towards the CoRoT fields. Most of our Li-rich giants have near-solar metallicities and stellar parameters consistent with being before the luminosity bump. This is difficult to reconcile with deep mixing models proposed to explain lithium enrichment, because these models can only operate at later evolutionary stages: at or past the luminosity bump. In an effort to shed light on the Li-rich phenomenon, we highlight recent evidence of the tidal destruction of close-in hot Jupiters at the sub-giant phase. We note that when coupled with models of planet accretion, the observed destruction of hot Jupiters actually predicts the existence of Li-rich giant stars, and suggests that Li-rich stars should be found early on the giant branch and occur more frequently with increasing metallicity. A comprehensive review of all known Li-rich giant stars reveals that this scenario is consistent with the data. However, more evolved or metal-poor stars are less likely to host close-in giant planets, implying that their Li-rich origin requires an alternative explanation, likely related to mixing scenarios rather than external phenomena.
  25. Thanks to high resolution spectra from the ESO FEROS, UVES and HARPS archive and high quality atmospheric parameters, we have been able to build a massive and homogeneous catalogue of lithium abundances for 7272 stars derived with an automatic method coupling a synthetic spectra grid and a Gauss-Newton algorithm. These lithium abundances have been validated with literature values, including those of the Gaia benchmark stars. We provide the star identifier, the spectrograph name, the LTE lithium abundance and its error, and the NLTE correction. (1 data file).
  26. We provide CNO and Fe abundance investigations for a sample of up to 45 NGC 1851 giants. High-resolution spectra were obtained with the VLT UVES spectrograph in the framework of the Gaia-ESO Survey. The stars in our sample can be separated into two groups with a difference of 0.1 dex in the mean metallicity, 0.3 dex in the mean C/N, and no significant difference in the mean values of C+N+O.
  27. The Gaia-ESO Survey was designed to target all major Galactic components (i.e. bulge, thin and thick discs, halo and clusters), with the goal of constraining the chemical and dynamical evolution of the Milky Way. This paper presents the methodology and considerations that drive the selection of the targeted, allocated and successfully observed Milky Way field stars. The detailed understanding of the survey construction, specifically the influence of target selection criteria on observed Milky Way field stars is required in order to analyse and interpret the survey data correctly. We present the target selection process for the Milky Way field stars observed with Very Large Telescope/Fibre Large Array Multi Element Spectrograph and provide the weights that characterize the survey target selection. The weights can be used to account for the selection effects in the Gaia-ESO Survey data for scientific studies. We provide a couple of simple examples to highlight the necessity of including such information in studies of the stellar populations in the Milky Way.
  28. We analyze the kinematics of ˜2000 giant stars in the direction of the Galactic bulge, extracted from the Gaia-ESO survey in the region -10^\circ ≲ {\ell }≲ 10^\circ and -11^\circ ≲ b≲ -3^\circ . We find distinct kinematic trends in the metal-rich ([{{M}}/{{H}}]\gt 0) and metal-poor ([{{M}}/{{H}}]\lt 0) stars in the data. The velocity dispersion of the metal-rich stars drops steeply with latitude, compared to a flat profile in the metal-poor stars, as has been seen previously. We argue that the metal-rich stars in this region are mostly on orbits that support the boxy-peanut shape of the bulge, which naturally explains the drop in their velocity dispersion profile with latitude. The metal-rich stars also exhibit peaky features in their line of sight velocity histograms, particularly along the minor axis of the bulge. We propose that these features are due to stars on resonant orbits supporting the boxy-peanut bulge. This conjecture is strengthened through the comparison of the minor axis data with the velocity histograms of resonant orbits generated in simulations of buckled bars. The “banana” or 2:1:2 orbits provide strongly bimodal histograms with narrow velocity peaks that resemble the Gaia-ESO metal-rich data.

  29. Aims: We report the discovery of two Li-rich giants, with A(Li) ~ 1.50, in an analysis of a sample of 40 giants of the open cluster Trumpler 20 (with turnoff mass ~1.8 M). The cluster was observed in the context of the Gaia-ESO Survey.
    Methods: The atmospheric parameters and Li abundances were derived using high-resolution UVES spectra. The Li abundances were corrected for nonlocal thermodynamical equilibrium (non-LTE) effects.
    Results: Only upper limits of the Li abundance could be determined for the majority of the sample. Two giants with detected Li turned out to be Li rich: star MG 340 has A(Li)non-LTE = 1.54 ± 0.21 dex and star MG 591 has A(Li)non-LTE = 1.60 ± 0.21 dex. Star MG 340 is on average ~0.30 dex more rich in Li than stars of similar temperature, while for star MG 591 this difference is on average ~0.80 dex. Carbon and nitrogen abundances indicate that all stars in the sample have completed the first dredge-up.
    Conclusions: The Li abundances in this unique sample of 40 giants in one open cluster clearly show that extra mixing is the norm in this mass range. Giants with Li abundances in agreement with the predictions of standard models are the exception. To explain the two Li-rich giants, we suggest that all events of extra mixing have been inhibited. This includes rotation-induced mixing during the main sequence and the extra mixing at the red giant branch luminosity bump. Such inhibition has been suggested in the literature to occur because of fossil magnetic fields in red giants that are descendants of main-sequence Ap-type stars. Based on observations collected at the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere under ESO programme 188.B-3002 (The Gaia-ESO Public Spectroscopic Survey).
  30. Context. The nature of the metallicity gradient inside the solar circle (RGC < 8 kpc) is poorly understood, but studies of Cepheids and a small sample of open clusters suggest that it steepens in the inner disk.
    Aims: We investigate the metallicity gradient of the inner disk using a sample of inner disk open clusters that is three times larger than has previously been studied in the literature to better characterize the gradient in this part of the disk.
    Methods: We used the Gaia-ESO Survey (GES) [Fe/H] values and stellar parameters for stars in 12 open clusters in the inner disk from GES-UVES data. Cluster mean [Fe/H] values were determined based on a membership analysis for each cluster. Where necessary, distances and ages to clusters were determined via comparison to theoretical isochrones.
    Results: The GES open clusters exhibit a radial metallicity gradient of -0.10 ± 0.02 dex kpc-1, consistent with the gradient measured by other literature studies of field red giant stars and open clusters in the range RGC ~ 6-12 kpc. We also measure a trend of increasing [Fe/H] with increasing cluster age, as has also been found in the literature.
    Conclusions: We find no evidence for a steepening of the inner disk metallicity gradient inside the solar circle as earlier studies indicated. The age-metallicity relation shown by the clusters is consistent with that predicted by chemical evolution models that include the effects of radial migration, but a more detailed comparison between cluster observations and models would be premature. Based on data products from observations made with ESO Telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory under programme ID 188.B-3002 and 193.B-0936. These data products have been processed by the Cambridge Astronomy Survey Unit (CASU) at the Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, and by the FLAMES/UVES reduction team at INAF/Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri. These data have been obtained from the Gaia-ESO Survey Data Archive, prepared and hosted by the Wide Field Astronomy Unit, Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, which is funded by the UK Science and Technology Facilities Council.Full Table 2 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/591/A37
  31. Parameters for confirmed stellar members of the open clusters Berkeley 44, Berkeley 81, NGC 2516, NGC 3532, NGC 4815, NGC 6005, NGC 6633, NGC 6705, NGC 6802, Pismis 18, Trumpler 20, Trumpler 23. (1 data file).
  32. Context. Stellar evolution models predict that internal mixing should cause some sodium overabundance at the surface of red giants more massive than ~1.5-2.0 M. The surface aluminium abundance should not be affected. Nevertheless, observational results disagree about the presence and/or the degree of Na and Al overabundances. In addition, Galactic chemical evolution models adopting different stellar yields lead to very different predictions for the behavior of [Na/Fe] and [Al/Fe] versus [Fe/H]. Overall, the observed trends of these abundances with metallicity are not well reproduced.
    Aims: We readdress both issues, using new Na and Al abundances determined within the Gaia-ESO Survey. Our aim is to obtain better observational constraints on the behavior of these elements using two samples: i) more than 600 dwarfs of the solar neighborhood and of open clusters and ii) low- and intermediate-mass clump giants in six open clusters.
    Methods: Abundances were determined using high-resolution UVES spectra. The individual Na abundances were corrected for nonlocal thermodynamic equilibrium effects. For the Al abundances, the order of magnitude of the corrections was estimated for a few representative cases. For giants, the abundance trends with stellar mass are compared to stellar evolution models. For dwarfs, the abundance trends with metallicity and age are compared to detailed chemical evolution models.
    Results: Abundances of Na in stars with mass below ~2.0 M, and of Al in stars below ~3.0 M, seem to be unaffected by internal mixing processes. For more massive stars, the Na overabundance increases with stellar mass. This trend agrees well with predictions of stellar evolutionary models. For Al, our only cluster with giants more massive than 3.0 M, NGC 6705, is Al enriched. However, this might be related to the environment where the cluster was formed. Chemical evolution models that well fit the observed [Na/Fe] vs. [Fe/H] trend in solar neighborhood dwarfs cannot simultaneously explain the run of [Al/Fe] with [Fe/H], and vice versa. The comparison with stellar ages is hampered by severe uncertainties. Indeed, reliable age estimates are available for only a half of the stars of the sample. We conclude that Al is underproduced by the models, except for stellar ages younger than about 7 Gyr. In addition, some significant source of late Na production seems to be missing in the models. Either current Na and Al yields are affected by large uncertainties, and/or some important Galactic source(s) of these elements has as yet not been taken into account. Based on observations made with the ESO/VLT, at Paranal Observatory, under program 188.B-3002 (The Gaia-ESO Public Spectroscopic Survey), and on data obtained from the ESO Archive originally observed under programs 60.A-9143, 076.B-0263 and 082.D-0726.Table 1 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/589/A115
  33. Context. Determining carbon and nitrogen abundances in red giants provides useful diagnostics to test mixing processes in stellar atmospheres.
    Aims: Our main aim is to determine carbon-to-nitrogen and carbon isotope ratios for evolved giants in the open clusters Collinder 261 and Melotte 66 and to compare the results with predictions of theoretical models.
    Methods: High-resolution spectra were analysed using a differential model atmosphere method. Abundances of carbon were derived using the C2 Swan (0, 1) band head at 5635.5 Å. The wavelength interval 7940-8130 Å, which contains CN features, was analysed to determine nitrogen abundances and carbon isotope ratios. The oxygen abundances were determined from the [O i] line at 6300 Å.
    Results: The mean values of the elemental abundances in Collinder 261, as determined from seven stars, are: [ C/Fe ] = -0.23 ± 0.02 (s.d.), [ N/Fe ] = 0.18 ± 0.09, [ O/Fe ] = -0.03 ± 0.07. The mean 12C /13C ratio is 11 ± 2, considering four red clump stars and 18 for one star above the clump. The mean C/N ratios are 1.60 ± 0.30 and 1.74, respectively. For the five stars in Melotte 66 we obtained: [ C/Fe ] = -0.21 ± 0.07 (s.d.), [ N/Fe ] = 0.17 ± 0.07, [ O/Fe ] = 0.16 ± 0.04. The 12C /13C and C/N ratios are 8 ± 2 and 1.67 ± 0.21, respectively.
    Conclusions: The 12C /13C and C/N ratios of stars in the investigated open clusters were compared with the ratios predicted by stellar evolution models. The mean values of 12C /13C ratios in Collinder 261 and Melotte 66 agree well with models of thermohaline-induced extra-mixing for the corresponding stellar turn-off masses of about 1.1-1.2 M. The mean C/N ratios are not decreased as much as predicted by the model in which the thermohaline- and rotation-induced extra-mixing act together. Based on observations collected at ESO telescopes under Guaranteed Time Observation programmes 071.D-0065, 072.D-0019, and 076.D-0220.
  34. File table1.dat contains atmospheric parameters and abundances, of sodium and aluminium, of 1303 stars that are part of the second and third internal releases of the Gaia-ESO Spectroscopic Survey. Parameters and abundances were determined using high-resolution UVES spectra. The spectrum analysis was carried out with the Gaia-ESO multiple pipelines strategy as described in Smiljanic et al. (2014A&A...570A.122S). Each parameter and abundance value is given together with an estimate of the method-to-method dispersion and the number of pipelines used for its computation. The individual Na abundances are also given corrected for nonlocal thermodynamic equilibrium (non-LTE) effects. The non-LTE Na abundances were computed only for the stars part of the 'best-quality' sample, as described in the paper (Section 2.3). The Al abundances are given only in LTE. (1 data file).
  35. Context. Recent spectroscopic surveys have begun to explore the Galactic disk system on the basis of large data samples, with spatial distributions sampling regions well outside the solar neighborhood. In this way, they provide valuable information for testing spatial and temporal variations of disk structure kinematics and chemical evolution.
    Aims: The main purposes of this study are to demonstrate the usefulness of a rigorous mathematical approach to separate substructures of a stellar sample in the abundance-metallicity plane, and provide new evidence with which to characterize the nature of the metal-poor end of the thin disk sequence.
    Methods: We used a Gaussian mixture model algorithm to separate in the [Mg/Fe] vs. [Fe/H] plane a clean disk star subsample (essentially at RGC< 10 kpc) from the Gaia-ESO survey (GES) internal data release 2 (iDR2). We aim at decomposing it into data groups highlighting number density and/or slope variations in the abundance-metallicity plane. An independent sample of disk red clump stars from the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) was used to cross-check the identified features.
    Results: We find that the sample is separated into five groups associated with major Galactic components; the metal-rich end of the halo, the thick disk, and three subgroups for the thin disk sequence. This is confirmed with the sample of red clump stars from APOGEE. The three thin disk groups served to explore this sequence in more detail. The two metal-intermediate and metal-rich groups of the thin disk decomposition ([Fe/H] > -0.25 dex) highlight a change in the slope at solar metallicity. This holds true at different radial regions of the Milky Way. The distribution of Galactocentric radial distances of the metal-poor part of the thin disk ([Fe/H] < -0.25 dex) is shifted to larger distances than those of the more metal-rich parts. Moreover, the metal-poor part of the thin disk presents indications of a scale height intermediate between those of the thick and the rest of the thin disk, and it displays higher azimuthal velocities than the latter. These stars might have formed and evolved in parallel and/or dissociated from the inside-out formation taking place in the internal thin disk. Their enhancement levels might be due to their origin from gas pre-enriched by outflows from the thick disk or the inner halo. The smooth trends of their properties (their spatial distribution with respect to the plane, in particular) with [Fe/H] and [Mg/Fe] suggested by the data indicates a quiet dynamical evolution, with no relevant merger events. Based on data products from observations made with ESO Telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory under programme ID 188.B-3002. These data products have been processed by the Cambridge Astronomy Survey Unit (CASU) at the Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, and by the FLAMES/UVES reduction team at INAF/Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri. These data have been obtained from the Gaia-ESO Survey Data Archive, prepared and hosted by the Wide Field Astronomy Unit, Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, which is funded by the UK Science and Technology Facilities Council.
  36. Asymptotic giant branch stars play an important role in enriching galaxies by s-process dominated elements. Recent studies showed that their role in producing neutron-rich elements in the Galactic disk was underestimated and should be reconsidered. We have derived abundances of neutron-capture elements in seven Galactic open clusters to further expand an observational dataset necessary for theoretical modelling of the Galactic chemical evolution. We present elemental enrichment patterns of the Galaxy, based on accurate ages, galactocentric distances and chemical composition of open clusters determined in this and other recent studies.
  37. Observations were conducted with the FLAMES (Fiber Large Array Multi-Element Spectrograph) multi-fiber facility in spring of 2012 and 2013. Spectra of high-resolving power (R~47000) were obtained with UVES (Ultraviolet and Visual Echelle Spectrograph) The spectra were exposed onto two CCDs, resulting in a wavelength coverage of 4700-6840Å with a gap of about 50Å in the centre. (6 data files).
  38. Context. Understanding the history and the evolution of the Milky Way is one of the main goals of modern astrophysics. In particular, the formation of the Galactic disc is a key problem of Galactic archaeology.
    Aims: We study the velocity dispersion behaviour of Galactic disc stars as a function of the [Mg/Fe] ratio, which for small metallicity bins can be used as a proxy of relative age. This key relation is essential to constrain the formation mechanisms of the disc stellar populations as well as the cooling and settling processes.
    Methods: We used the recommended parameters and chemical abundances of 7800 FGK Milky Way field stars from the second internal data release of the Gaia-ESO spectroscopic Survey. These stars were observed with the GIRAFFE spectrograph (HR10 and HR21 setups), and cover a large spatial volume in the intervals 6 Results: From analysing the Galactocentric velocity of the stars for the thin disc, we find a weak positive correlation between Vφ and [Fe/H] that is due to a slowly rotating [Fe/H]-poor tail. For the thick disc stars, a strong correlation with [Fe/H] and [Mg/Fe] is established. In addition, we have detected an inversion of the velocity dispersion trends with [Mg/Fe] for thick-disc stars with [Fe/H] < -0.10 dex and [Mg/Fe] > +0.20 dex for the radial component. First, the velocity dispersion increases with [Mg/Fe] at all [Fe/H] ratios for the thin-disc stars, and then it decreases for the thick-disc population at the highest [Mg/Fe] abundances. Similar trends are observed for several bins of [Mg/Fe] within the errors for the azimuthal velocity dispersion, while a continuous increase with [Mg/Fe] is observed for the vertical velocity dispersion. The velocity dispersion decrease agrees with previous measurements of the RAVE survey, although it is observed here for a greater metallicity interval and a larger spatial volume.
    Conclusions: Thanks to the Gaia-ESO Survey data, we confirm the existence of [Mg/Fe]-rich thick-disc stars with cool kinematics in the generally turbulent context of the primitive Galactic disc. This is discussed in the framework of the different disc formation and evolution scenarios. Based on observations collected with the FLAMES spectrograph at the VLT/UT2 telescope (Paranal Observatory, ESO, Chile), for the Gaia-ESO Large Public Survey, programme 188.B-3002
  39. It is well known that newly formed planetary systems undergo processes of orbital reconfiguration and planetary migration. As a result, planets or protoplanetary objects may accrete onto the central star, being fused and mixed into its external layers. If the accreted mass is sufficiently high and the star has a sufficiently thin convective envelope, such events may result in a modification of the chemical composition of the stellar photosphere in an observable way, enhancing it with elements that were abundant in the accreted mass. The recent Gaia-ESO Survey observations of the 10-20 Myr old Gamma Velorum cluster have enabled identifying a star that is significantly enriched in iron with respect to other cluster members. In this Letter we further investigate the abundance pattern of this star, showing that its abundance anomaly is not limited to iron, but is also present in the refractory elements, whose overabundances are correlated with the condensation temperature. This finding strongly supports the hypothesis of a recent accretion of rocky material. Based on observations made with the ESO/VLT, at Paranal Observatory, under program 188.B-3002 (The Gaia-ESO Public Spectroscopic Survey).
  40. Context. High-resolution spectroscopic surveys of stars indicate that the Milky Way thin and thick discs follow different paths in the chemical space defined by [α/ Fe] vs. [Fe/H], possibly suggesting different formation mechanisms for each of these structures.
    Aims: We investigate, using the Gaia-ESO Survey internal Data-Release 2, the properties of the double sequence of the Milky Way discs, which are defined chemically as the high-α and low-α populations. We discuss their compatibility with discs defined by other means, such as metallicity, kinematics, or positions.
    Methods: This investigation uses two different approaches: in velocity space, for stars located in the extended solar neighbourhood; and, in chemical space, for stars at different ranges of Galactocentric radii and heights from the Galactic mid-plane. The separation we find in velocity space allows us to investigate, using a novel approach, the extent of metallicity of each of the two chemical sequences, without making any assumption about the shape of their metallicity distribution functions. Then, using the separation in chemical space, adopting the magnesium abundance as a tracer of the α-elements, we characterise the spatial variation of the slopes of the [α/ Fe] - [Fe/H] sequences for the thick and thin discs and the way in which the relative proportions of the two discs change across the Galaxy.
    Results: We find that the thick disc, defined as the stars tracing the high-α sequence, extends up to super-solar metallicities ([Fe/H] ≈ +0.2 dex), and the thin disc, defined as the stars tracing the low-α sequence, extends at least down to [Fe/H] ≈ -0.8 dex, with hints pointing towards even lower values. Radial and vertical gradients in α-abundances are found for the thin disc, with mild spatial variations in its [α/ Fe] - [Fe/H] paths, whereas for the thick disc we do not detect any spatial variations of this kind. This is in agreement with results obtained recently from other high-resolution spectroscopic surveys.
    Conclusions: The small variations in the spatial [α/ Fe] - [Fe/H] paths of the thin disc do not allow us to distinguish between formation models of this structure. On the other hand, the lack of radial gradients and [α/ Fe] - [Fe/H] variations for the thick disc indicate that the mechanism responsible for the mixing of metals in the young Galaxy (e.g. radial stellar migration or turbulent gaseous disc) was more efficient before the (present) thin disc started forming. Based on observations collected with the FLAMES spectrograph at the VLT/UT2 telescope (Paranal Observatory, ESO, Chile), for the Gaia-ESO Large Public Survey, programme 188.B-3002.
  41. Context. In the current era of large spectroscopic surveys of the Milky Way, reference stars for calibrating astrophysical parameters and chemical abundances are of paramount importance.
    Aims: We determine elemental abundances of Mg, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Co, and Ni for our predefined set of Gaia FGK benchmark stars.
    Methods: By analysing high-resolution spectra with a high signal-to-noise ratio taken from several archive datasets, we combined results of eight different methods to determine abundances on a line-by-line basis. We performed a detailed homogeneous analysis of the systematic uncertainties, such as differential versus absolute abundance analysis. We also assessed errors that are due to non-local thermal equilibrium and the stellar parameters in our final abundances.
    Results: Our results are provided by listing final abundances and the different sources of uncertainties, as well as line-by-line and method-by-method abundances.
    Conclusions: The atmospheric parameters of the Gaia FGK benchmark stars are already being widely used for calibration of several pipelines that are applied to different surveys. With the added reference abundances of ten elements, this set is very suitable for calibrating the chemical abundances obtained by these pipelines. Based on NARVAL and HARPS data obtained within the Gaia DPAC (Data Processing and Analysis Consortium) and coordinated by the GBOG (Ground-Based Observations for Gaia) working group and on data retrieved from the ESO-ADP database.Tables C.1-C.35 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/582/A81
  42. Not Available
  43. We report on VLT/GIRAFFE spectra of stars in two recently discovered ultra-faint satellites, Reticulum 2 and Horologium 1, obtained as part of the Gaia-ESO Survey. We identify 18 members in Reticulum 2 and five in Horologium 1. We find Reticulum 2 to have a velocity dispersion of {3.22}-0.49+1.64 {km} {{{s}}}-1, implying a mass-to-light ratio (M/L) of ˜500. The mean metallicity of Reticulum 2 is [{Fe}/{{H}}]=-2.46, with an intrinsic dispersion of ˜0.3 dex and α-enhancement of ˜0.4 dex. We conclude that Reticulum 2 is a dwarf galaxy. We also report on the serendipitous discovery of four stars in a previously unknown stellar substructure near Reticulum 2 with [{Fe}/{{H}}]˜ -2 and {V}{hel}˜ 220 {km} {{{s}}}-1, far from the systemic velocity of Reticulum 2. For Horologium 1 we infer a velocity dispersion of σ ≤ft(V\right)={4.9}-0.9+2.8 {km} {{{s}}}-1 and a M/L ratio of ˜600, leading us to conclude that Horologium 1 is also a dwarf galaxy. Horologium 1 is slightly more metal-poor than Reticulum 2 ([{Fe}/{{H}}]=-2.76) and is similarly α-enhanced: [α /{Fe}]˜ 0.3 {dex} with a significant spread of metallicities of 0.17 dex. The line-of-sight velocity of Reticulum 2 is offset by 100 km s-1 from the prediction of the orbital velocity of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), thus making its association with the Cloud uncertain. However, at the location of Horologium 1, both the backward-integrated orbit of the LMC and its halo are predicted to have radial velocities similar to that of the dwarf. Therefore, it is possible that Horologium 1 is or once was a member of the Magellanic family.
  44. It has been suspected already more than thirty year ago that NGC 1851 is not chemically homogeneous. By now, it is clear that NGC 1851 has two distinct subgiant branches, however explanations of their origin so far lack consensus. Some authors explain them by two generations of stars, the first being primordial, while the second one being born from the ejecta of a fraction of the stars of the earlier one. There are suggestions that NGC 1851 might be the result of a merger of two globular clusters, or originated as the nucleus of a dwarf galaxy that was captured by the Milky Way. In this presentation, we provide a crucial missing information on CNO abundances determined in a homogeneous way for a large sample of NGC 1851 giants. High-resolution spectra were obtained with the VLT UVES spectrograph in a framework of the Gaia-ESO Survey. From the investigated stars we clearly see that the two NGC 1851 populations have by about 0.2 dex difference in metallicity, the sums of C+O+N differ by about 0.1 dex, the mean C/N ratio values differ by about 0.5 dex, chemical elements that are insensitive to internal stellar mixing show normal Galactic abundances of the corresponding metallicities. This leads us to the conclusion that NGC 1851 is a binary cluster. We provide interpretations of these and other results of the study.
  45. Determinations of carbon and nitrogen abundances in red giants provide useful diagnostic data for testing of mixing processes in stellar atmospheres. Observations already have provided proves not only of the first dredge-up, which brings the CN-processed material up to the surfaces of low-mass stars when they reach the bottom of the red giant branch, but also show evidence of extra-mixing, which happens later on the giant branch. Theoretical models of thermohaline- and rotation-induced extra-mixing currently are in most intense development. The influence of thermohaline mixing and rotation is different in stars of various masses and still needs more observational data in order to be robustly treated. We present new observational data of C and N abundances and carbon isotope ratios in giants and clump stars of ten open clusters with different turn-off masses. Taken together with results of our previous studies, they are used to evaluate the theoretical models of extra-mixing.
  46. Context. The inner disc, which links the thin disc with the bulge, has been somewhat neglected in the past because of the intrinsic difficulties in its study, among which crowding and high extinction. Open clusters located in the inner disc are among thebest tracers of its chemistry at different ages and distances.
    Aims: We analyse the chemical patterns of four open clusters located within 7 kpc of the Galactic centre and of field stars to infer the properties of the inner disc with the Gaia-ESO survey idr2/3 data release.
    Methods: We derive the parameters of the newly observed cluster, Berkeley 81, finding an age of about 1 Gyr and a Galactocentric distance of ~5.4 kpc. We construct the chemical patterns of clusters and we compare them with those of field stars in the solar neighbourhood and in the inner-disc samples.
    Results: Comparing the three populations we observe that inner-disc clusters and field stars are both, on average, enhanced in [O/Fe], [Mg/Fe], and [Si/Fe]. Using the idr2/3 results of M67, we estimate the non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) effect on the abundances of Mg and Si in giant stars. After empirically correcting for NLTE effects, we note that NGC 6705 and Be 81 still have a high [α/Fe].
    Conclusions: The location of the four open clusters and of the field population reveals that the evolution of the metallicity [Fe/H] and of [α/Fe] can be explained within the framework of a simple chemical evolution model: both [Fe/H] and [α/Fe] of Trumpler 20 and of NGC 4815 are in agreement with expectations from a simple chemical evolution model. On the other hand, NGC 6705, and to a lesser degree Berkeley 81, have higher [α/Fe] than expected for their ages, location in the disc, and metallicity. These differences might originate from local enrichment processes as explained in the inhomogeneous evolution framework. Based on observations collected with the FLAMES spectrograph at VLT/UT2 telescope (Paranal Observatory, ESO, Chile), for the Gaia-ESO Large Public Survey (188.B-3002).
  47. As in our previous work on the subject, we built a library of high- resolution spectra of the GBS, using our own observations on the NARVAL spectrograph at Pic du Midi in addition to archived data. The abundance of alpha and iron peak elements of the Gaia FGK benchmark stars is determined by combining 8 methods. The Tables indicate the elemental abundances determined for each star, element, line and method. (36 data files).
  48. We present the abundance analysis for a sample of 7 red giant branch stars in the metal-poor globular cluster NGC 4372 based on UVES spectra acquired as part of the Gaia-ESO Survey. This is the first extensive study of this cluster from high-resolution spectroscopy. We derive abundances of O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, Fe, Cr, Ni, Y, Ba, and La. We find a metallicity of [Fe/H] = -2.19 ± 0.03 and find no evidence of any metallicity spread. This metallicity makes NGC 4372 one of the most metal-poor Galactic globular clusters. We also find an α-enhancement typical of halo globular clusters at this metallicity. Significant spreads are observed in the abundances of light elements. In particular, we find a Na-O anticorrelation. Abundances of O are relatively high compared with other globular clusters. This could indicate that NGC 4372 was formed in an environment with high O for its metallicity. A Mg-Al spread is also present that spans a range of more than 0.5 dex in Al abundances. Na is correlated with Al and Mgabundances at a lower significance level. This pattern suggests that the Mg-Al burning cycle is active. This behavior can also be seen in giant stars of other massive, metal-poor clusters. A relation between light and heavy s-process elements has been identified.
  49. We obtained high-resolution spectra of the programme and comparison stars with the Fibre-fed Echelle Spectrograph on the Nordic Optical 2.5 m telescope (NOT) during 2008, 2011, and 2012. (2 data files).
  50. High-precision spectroscopy of large stellar samples plays a crucial role for several topical issues in astrophysics. Examples include studying the chemical structure and evolution of the Milky Way Galaxy, tracing the origin of chemical elements, and characterizing planetary host stars. Data are accumulating from instruments that obtain high-quality spectra of stars in the ultraviolet, optical and infrared wavelength regions on a routine basis. These instruments are located at ground-based 2-10 m class telescopes around the world, in addition to the spectrographs with unique capabilities available at the Hubble Space Telescope. The interpretation of these spectra requires high-quality transition data for numerous species, in particular neutral and singly ionized atoms, and di- or triatomic molecules. We rely heavily on the continuous efforts of laboratory astrophysics groups that produce and improve the relevant experimental and theoretical atomic and molecular data. The compilation of the best available data is facilitated by databases and electronic infrastructures such as the NIST Atomic Spectra Database, the VALD database, or the Virtual Atomic and Molecular Data Centre. We illustrate the current status of atomic data for optical stellar spectra with the example of the Gaia-ESO Public Spectroscopic Survey. Data sources for 35 chemical elements were reviewed in an effort to construct a line list for a homogeneous abundance analysis of up to 105 stars.
  51. Context. Stars are born together from giant molecular clouds and, if we assume that the priors were chemically homogeneous and well-mixed, we expect them to share the same chemical composition. Most of the stellar aggregates are disrupted while orbiting the Galaxy and most of the dynamic information is lost, thus the only possibility of reconstructing the stellar formation history is to analyze the chemical abundances that we observe today.
    Aims: The chemical tagging technique aims to recover disrupted stellar clusters based merely on their chemical composition. We evaluate the viability of this technique to recover co-natal stars that are no longer gravitationally bound.
    Methods: Open clusters are co-natal aggregates that have managed to survive together. We compiled stellar spectra from 31 old and intermediate-age open clusters, homogeneously derived atmospheric parameters, and 17 abundance species, and applied machine learning algorithms to group the stars based on their chemical composition. This approach allows us to evaluate the viability and efficiency of the chemical tagging technique.
    Results: We found that stars at different evolutionary stages have distinct chemical patterns that may be due to NLTE effects, atomic diffusion, mixing, and biases. When separating stars into dwarfs and giants, we observed that a few open clusters show distinct chemical signatures while the majority show a high degree of overlap. This limits the recovery of co-natal aggregates by applying the chemical tagging technique. Nevertheless, there is room for improvement if more elements are included and models are improved. Based on observations obtained at the Telescope Bernard Lyot (USR5026) operated by the Observatoire Midi-Pyrénées, Université de Toulouse (Paul Sabatier), Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique of France, and on public data obtained from the ESO Science Archive Facility under requests number 81252 and 81618.
  52. Context. A combined study of kinematics and chemical composition of stars is one of the most promising tools of research in Galaxy formation. The main goal in this field of research is to reconstruct the formation history of our Galaxy, to reveal the origin of the thick disc, and to find remnants of ancient mergers.
    Aims: We determine detailed elemental abundances in stars belonging to the so-called Group 1 of the Geneva-Copenhagen survey (GCS) and compare the chemical composition with the Galactic thin- and thick-disc stars, with the GCS Group 2 and Group 3 stars, as well as with several kinematic streams of similar metallicities. The aim is to search for chemical signatures that might give information about the formation history of this kinematic group of stars.
    Methods: High-resolution spectra were obtained with the Fibre-fed Echelle Spectrograph spectrograph at the Nordic Optical Telescope, La Palma, and were analysed with a differential model atmosphere method. Comparison stars were observed and analysed with the same method.
    Results: The average value of [Fe/H] for the 37 stars of Group 1 is -0.20 ± 0.14 dex. Investigated Group 1 stars can be separated into three age subgroups. Along with the main 8- and 12-Gyr-old populations, a subgroup of stars younger than 5 Gyr can be separated as well. Abundances of oxygen, α-elements, and r-process dominated elements are higher than in Galactic thin-disc dwarfs. This elemental abundance pattern has similar characteristics to that of the Galactic thick disc and differs slightly from those in Hercules, Arcturus, and AF06 stellar streams.
    Conclusions: The similar chemical composition of stars in Group 1, as well as in Group 2 and 3, with that in stars of the thick disc might suggest that their formation histories are linked. The chemical composition pattern together with the kinematic properties and ages of stars in the investigated GCS groups provide evidence of their common origin and possible relation to an ancient merging event. A gas-rich satellite merger scenario is proposed as the most likely origin. Tables 4 and 5 are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org
  53. Context. The Gaia-ESO Public Spectroscopic Survey will observe a large sample of clusters and cluster stars, covering a wide age-distance-metallicity-position-density parameter space.
    Aims: We aim to determine C, N, and O abundances in stars of Galactic open clusters of the Gaia-ESO survey and to compare the observed abundances with those predicted by current stellar and Galactic evolution models. In this pilot paper, we investigate the first three intermediate-age open clusters.
    Methods: High-resolution spectra, observed with the FLAMES-UVES spectrograph on the ESO VLT, were analysed using a differential model atmosphere method. Abundances of carbon were derived using the C2 band heads at 5135 and 5635.5 Å. The wavelength interval 6470-6490 Å, with CN features, was analysed to determine nitrogen abundances. Oxygen abundances were determined from the [O i] line at 6300 Å.
    Results: The mean values of the elemental abundances in Trumpler 20 as determined from 42 stars are: [ Fe/H ] = 0.10 ± 0.08 (s.d.), [ C/H ] = -0.10 ± 0.07, [ N/H ] = 0.50 ± 0.07, and consequently C/N = 0.98 ± 0.12. We measure from five giants in NGC 4815: [ Fe/H ] = -0.01 ± 0.04, [ C/H ] = -0.17 ± 0.08, [ N/H ] = 0.53 ± 0.07, [ O/H ] = 0.12 ± 0.09, and C/N = 0.79 ± 0.08. We obtain from 27 giants in NGC 6705: [ Fe/H ] = 0.0 ± 0.05, [ C/H ] = -0.08 ± 0.06, [ N/H ] = 0.61 ± 0.07, [ O/H ] = 0.13 ± 0.05, and C/N = 0.83 ± 0.19. The C/N ratios of stars in the investigated open clusters were compared with the ratios predicted by stellar evolutionary models. For the corresponding stellar turn-off masses from 1.9 to 3.3 M, the observed C/N ratio values are very close to the predictions of standard first dredge-up models as well as to models of thermohaline extra-mixing. They are not decreased as much as predicted by the recent model in which the thermohaline- and rotation-induced extra-mixing act together. The average [O/H] abundance ratios of NGC 4815 and NGC 6705 are compared with the predictions of two Galactic chemical evolution models. The data are consistent with the evolution at the solar radius within the errors.
    Conclusions: The first results of CNO determinations in open clusters show the potential of the Gaia-ESO Survey to judge stellar and Galactic chemical evolution models and the validity of their physical assumptions through a homogeneous and detailed spectral analysis. Based on data products from observations made with ESO Telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory under programme ID 188.B-3002 (The Gaia-ESO Public Spectroscopic Survey, PIs G. Gilmore and S. Randich).
  54. We have started a study of chemical composition of a new kinematically identified group of stars in the Galactic disc. Based on dynamical properties those stars were suspected to belong to a disrupted satellite. The main atmospheric parameters and chemical composition were determined for thirty-two stars from high resolution spectra obtained at the Nordic Optical Telescope with the spectrograph FIES. In this contribution the preliminary results of chemical composition study are presented. The metallicity of the investigated stars lie in the interval -0.2 < [Fe/H] < -0.6, their abundances of oxygen and alpha-elements are overabundant in comparison to the Galactic thin disc dwarfs at this metallicity range. This provides further evidences of their common and possibly extragalactic origin.

  55. Aims: Until recently, most high-resolution spectroscopic studies of the Galactic thin and thick discs were mostly confined to objects in the solar vicinity. Here we aim at enlarging the volume in which individual chemical abundances are used to characterise the thin and thick discs, using the first internal data release of the Gaia-ESO survey (GES iDR1).
    Methods: We used the spectra of around 2000 FGK dwarfs and giants from the GES iDR1, obtained at resolutions of up to R ~ 20 000 with the FLAMES/GIRAFFE spectrograph. We derive and discuss the abundances of eight elements (Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Ti, Fe, Cr, Ni, and Y).
    Results: We show that the trends of these elemental abundances with iron are very similar to those in the solar neighbourhood. We find a natural division between α-rich and α-poor stars, best seen in the bimodality of the [Mg/M] distributions in bins of metallicity, which we attribute to thick- and thin-disc sequences, respectively. This separation is visible for most α-elements and for aluminium. With the possible exception of Al, the observed dispersion around the trends is well described by the expected errors, leaving little room for astrophysical dispersion. Using previously derived distances from the first paper from this series for our sample, we further find that the thick-disc is more extended vertically and is more centrally concentrated towards the inner Galaxy than the thin-disc, which indicates a shorter scale-length. We derive the radial (4 to 12 kpc) and vertical (0 to 3.5 kpc) gradients in metallicity, iron, four α-element abundances, and aluminium for the two populations, taking into account the identified correlation between RGC and | Z |. Similarly to other works, a radial metallicity gradient is found in the thin disc. The positive radial individual [α/M] gradients found are at variance from the gradients observed in the RAVE survey. The thin disc also hosts a negative vertical metallicity gradient in the solar cylinder, accompanied by positive individual [α/M] and [Al/M] gradients. The thick-disc, on the other hand, presents no radial metallicity gradient, a shallower vertical metallicity gradient than the thin-disc, an α-elements-to-iron radial gradient in the opposite sense than that of the thin disc, and positive vertical individual [α/M] and [Al/M] gradients. We examine several thick-disc formation scenarii in the light of these radial and vertical trends. Based on observations collected at ESO telescopes under Gaia-ESO survey programme.Full Table 2 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/572/A33
  56. We performed a detailed study of the ratio of low-α to high-α stars in the Galactic halo as observed by the Gaia-ESO Survey. Using a sample of 381 metal-poor stars from the second internal data release, we found that the value of this ratio did not show evidence of systematic trends as a function of metallicity, surface gravity, Galactic latitude, Galactic longitude, height above the Galactic plane, and Galactocentric radius. We conclude that the αpoorrich value of 0.28 ± 0.08 suggests that in the inner halo, the larger portion of stars were formed in a high star formation rate environment, and about 15% of the metal-poor stars originated from much lower star formation rate environments.
  57. Context. The ongoing Gaia-ESO Public Spectroscopic Survey is using FLAMES at the VLT to obtain high-quality medium-resolution Giraffe spectra for about 105 stars and high-resolution UVES spectra for about 5000 stars. With UVES, the Survey has already observed 1447 FGK-type stars.
    Aims: These UVES spectra are analyzed in parallel by several state-of-the-art methodologies. Our aim is to present how these analyses were implemented, to discuss their results, and to describe how a final recommended parameter scale is defined. We also discuss the precision (method-to-method dispersion) and accuracy (biases with respect to the reference values) of the final parameters. These results are part of the Gaia-ESO second internal release and will be part of its first public release of advanced data products.
    Methods: The final parameter scale is tied to the scale defined by the Gaia benchmark stars, a set of stars with fundamental atmospheric parameters. In addition, a set of open and globular clusters is used to evaluate the physical soundness of the results. Each of the implemented methodologies is judged against the benchmark stars to define weights in three different regions of the parameter space. The final recommended results are the weighted medians of those from the individual methods.
    Results: The recommended results successfully reproduce the atmospheric parameters of the benchmark stars and the expected Teff-log g relation of the calibrating clusters. Atmospheric parameters and abundances have been determined for 1301 FGK-type stars observed with UVES. The median of the method-to-method dispersion of the atmospheric parameters is 55 K for Teff, 0.13 dex for log g and 0.07 dex for [Fe/H]. Systematic biases are estimated to be between 50-100 K for Teff, 0.10-0.25 dex for log g and 0.05-0.10 dex for [Fe/H]. Abundances for 24 elements were derived: C, N, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Y, Zr, Mo, Ba, Nd, and Eu. The typical method-to-method dispersion of the abundances varies between 0.10 and 0.20 dex.
    Conclusions: The Gaia-ESO sample of high-resolution spectra of FGK-type stars will be among the largest of its kind analyzed in a homogeneous way. The extensive list of elemental abundances derived in these stars will enable significant advances in the areas of stellar evolution and Milky Way formation and evolution. Based on observations made with the ESO/VLT, at Paranal Observatory, under program 188.B-3002 (The Gaia-ESO Public Spectroscopic Survey, PIs Gilmore and Randich). Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org
  58. Table2 contains chemical abundances of 1916 stars from GES DR1. (1 data file).
  59. Context. Chemically inhomogeneous populations are observed in most globular clusters, but not in open clusters. Cluster mass seems to play a key role in the existence of multiple populations.
    Aims: Studying the chemical homogeneity of the most massive open clusters is needed to better understand the mechanism of their formation and determine the mass limit under which clusters cannot host multiple populations. Here we studied NGC 6705, which is a young and massive open cluster located towards the inner region of the Milky Way. This cluster is located inside the solar circle. This makes it an important tracer of the inner disk abundance gradient.
    Methods: This study makes use of BVI and ri photometry and comparisons with theoretical isochrones to derive the age of NGC 6705. We study the density profile of the cluster and the mass function to infer the cluster mass. Based on abundances of the chemical elements distributed in the first internal data release of the Gaia-ESO Survey, we study elemental ratios and the chemical homogeneity of the red clump stars. Radial velocities enable us to study the rotation and internal kinematics of the cluster.
    Results: The estimated ages range from 250 to 316 Myr, depending on the adopted stellar model. Luminosity profiles and mass functions show strong signs of mass segregation. We derive the mass of the cluster from its luminosity function and from the kinematics, finding values between 3700 M and 11 000 M. After selecting the cluster members from their radial velocities, we obtain a metallicity of [Fe/H] = 0.10 ± 0.06 based on 21 candidate members. Moreover, NGC 6705 shows no sign of the typical correlations or anti-correlations between Al, Mg, Si, and Na, which are expected in multiple populations. This is consistent with our cluster mass estimate, which is lower than the required mass limit proposed in the literature to develop multiple populations. Based on the data obtained at ESO telescopes under programme 188.B-3002 (the public Gaia-ESO spectroscopic survey, PIs Gilmore and Randich) and on the archive data of the programme 083.D-0671.Full Table 2 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/569/A17
  60. Context. Recent metallicity determinations in young open clusters and star-forming regions suggest that the latter may be characterized by a slightly lower metallicity than the Sun and older clusters in the solar vicinity. However, these results are based on small statistics and inhomogeneous analyses. The Gaia-ESO Survey is observing and homogeneously analyzing large samples of stars in several young clusters and star-forming regions, hence allowing us to further investigate this issue.
    Aims: We present a new metallicity determination of the Chamaeleon I star-forming region, based on the products distributed in the first internal release of the Gaia-ESO Survey.
    Methods: The 48 candidate members of Chamaeleon I have been observed with the high-resolution, spectrograph UVES. We use the surface gravity, lithium line equivalent width, and position in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram to confirm the cluster members, and we use the iron abundance to derive the mean metallicity of the region.
    Results: Out of the 48 targets, we confirm 15 high probability members. Considering the metallicity measurements for nine of them, we find that the iron abundance of Chamaeleon I is slightly subsolar with a mean value [Fe/H] = -0.08 ± 0.04 dex. This result agrees with the metallicity determination of other nearby star-forming regions and suggests that the chemical pattern of the youngest stars in the solar neighborhood is indeed more metal-poor than the Sun. We argue that this evidence may be related to the chemical distribution of the Gould Belt that contains most of the nearby star-forming regions and young clusters. Based on observations collected at the ESO telescopes under programme 188.B3002, the Gaia-ESO large public spectroscopic survey.Tables 1-3 are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org
  61. We combine new BV photometry with the spectroscopic observations of the Gaia-ESO Survey to study the open cluster NGC6 705. 1028 stars were observed with the HR15n grating of the GIRAFFE instrument at VLT/UT2. The radial velocities obtained for those stars were used to derive membership probabilities. (1 data file).
  62. We study the relationship between age, metallicity, and α-enhancement of FGK stars in the Galactic disk. The results are based upon the analysis of high-resolution UVES spectra from the Gaia-ESO large stellar survey. We explore the limitations of the observed dataset, i.e. the accuracy of stellar parameters and the selection effects that are caused by the photometric target preselection. We find that the colour and magnitude cuts in the survey suppress old metal-rich stars and young metal-poor stars. This suppression may be as high as 97% in some regions of the age-metallicity relationship. The dataset consists of 144 stars with a wide range of ages from 0.5 Gyr to 13.5 Gyr, Galactocentric distances from 6 kpcto 9.5 kpc, and vertical distances from the plane 0 < |Z| < 1.5 kpc. On this basis, we find that i) the observed age-metallicity relation is nearly flat in the range of ages between 0 Gyr and 8 Gyr; ii) at ages older than 9 Gyr, we see a decrease in [Fe/H] and a clear absence of metal-rich stars; this cannot be explained by the survey selection functions; iii) there is a significant scatter of [Fe/H] at any age; and iv) [Mg/Fe] increases with age, but the dispersion of [Mg/Fe] at ages >9 Gyr is not as small as advocated by some other studies. In agreement with earlier work, we find that radial abundance gradients change as a function of vertical distance from the plane. The [Mg/Fe] gradient steepens and becomes negative. In addition, we show that the inner disk is not only more α-rich compared to the outer disk, but also older, as traced independently by the ages and Mg abundances of stars. Based on observations made with the ESO/VLT, at Paranal Observatory, under programme 188.B-3002 (The Gaia-ESO Public Spectroscopic Survey).
  63. Context. NGC 4815 is a populous ~500 Myr open cluster at Rgc ~ 7 kpc observed in the first six months of the Gaia-ESO Survey. Located in the inner Galactic disk, NGC 4815 is an important potential tracer of the abundance gradient, where relatively few intermediate age open clusters are found.
    Aims: The Gaia-ESO Survey data can provide an improved characterization of the cluster properties, such as age, distance, reddening, and abundance profile.
    Methods: We use the survey derived radial velocities, stellar atmospheric parameters, metallicity, and elemental abundances for stars targeted as potential members of this cluster to carry out an analysis of cluster properties. The radial velocity distribution of stars in the cluster field is used to define the cluster systemic velocity and derive likely cluster membership for stars observed by the Gaia-ESO Survey. We investigate the distributions of Fe and Fe-peak elements, alpha-elements, and the light elements Na and Al and characterize the cluster's internal chemical homogeneity comparing it to the properties of radial velocity non-member stars. Utilizing these cluster properties, the cluster color-magnitude diagram is analyzed and theoretical isochrones are fit to derive cluster reddening, distance, and age.
    Results: NGC 4815 is found to have a mean metallicity of [Fe/H] = +0.03 ± 0.05 dex (s.d.). Elemental abundances of cluster members show typically very small internal variation, with internal dispersions of ~0.05 dex. The alpha-elements [Ca/Fe] and [Si/Fe] show solar ratios, but [Mg/Fe] is moderately enhanced, while [Ti/Fe] appears slightly deficient. As with many open clusters, the light elements [Na/Fe] and [Al/Fe] are enhanced, [Na/Fe] significantly so, although the role of internal mixing and the assumption of local thermodynamical equilibrium in the analysis remain to be investigated. From isochrone fits to color-magnitude diagrams, we find a cluster age of 0.5 to 0.63 Gyr, a reddening of E(B - V) = 0.59 to 0.65, and a distance modulus (m - M)0 = 11.95 to 12.20, depending on the choice of theoretical models, leading to a Galactocentric distance of 6.9 kpc. Based on observations made with the ESO/VLT, at Paranal Observatory, under program 188.B-3002 (The Gaia-ESO Public Spectroscopic Survey).
  64. Context. From correlations between orbital parameters, several new coherent groups of stars were recently identified in the Galactic disc and suggested to correspond to remnants of disrupted satellites. To reconstruct their origin at least three main observational parameters - kinematics, chemical composition and age - must be known.
    Aims: We determine detailed elemental abundances in stars belonging to the so-called Group 2 of the Geneva-Copenhagen Survey and compare the chemical composition with Galactic thin- and thick-disc stars, as well as with the Arcturus and AF06 streams (Arifyanto & Fuchs 2006, A&A, 449, 533). The aim is to search for chemical signatures that might give information about the formation history of this kinematic group of stars.
    Methods: High-resolution spectra were obtained with the FIES spectrograph at the Nordic Optical Telescope, La Palma, and were analysed with a differential model atmosphere method. Comparison stars were observed and analysed with the same method.
    Results: The average value of [Fe/H] for the 32 stars of Group 2 is - 0.42 ± 0.10 dex. The investigated group consists mainly of two 8- and 12-Gyr-old stellar populations. Abundances of oxygen, α-elements, and r-process-dominated elements are higher than in Galactic thin-disc dwarfs. This elemental abundance pattern has similar characteristics as that of the Galactic thick-disc.
    Conclusions: The similarity in chemical composition of stars in Group 2 with that in stars of the thick-disc might suggest that their formation histories are linked. The chemical composition together with the kinematic properties and ages of stars in the stars investigated provides evidence of their common origin and possible relation to an ancient merging event. A gas-rich satellite merger scenario is proposed as the most likely origin. Groups 2 and 3 of the Geneva-Copenhagen Survey might have originated in the same merging event. Tables 4 and 5 are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org
  65. Context. Open clusters are key tools to study the spatialdistribution of abundances in the disk and their evolution with time.
    Aims: Using the first release of stellar parameters and abundances of the Gaia-ESO Survey, we analyse the chemical properties of stars in three old/intermediate-age open clusters, namely NGC 6705, NGC 4815, and Trumpler 20, which are all located in the inner part of the Galactic disk at Galactocentric radius RGC ~ 7 kpc. We aim to prove their homogeneity and to compare them with the field population.
    Methods: We study the abundance ratios of elements belonging to two different nucleosynthetic channels: α-elements and iron-peak elements. For each element, we analyse the internal chemical homogeneity of cluster members, and we compare the cumulative distributions of cluster abundance ratios with those of solar neighbourhood turn-off stars and of inner-disk/bulge giants. We compare the abundance ratios of field and cluster stars with two chemical evolution models that predict different α-enhancement dependences on the Galactocentric distance due to different assumptions on the infall and star-formation rates.
    Results: The main results can be summarised as follows: i) cluster members are chemically homogeneous within 3σ in all analysed elements; ii) the three clusters have comparable [El/Fe] patterns within ~1σ, but they differ in their global metal content [El/H] with NGC 4815 having the lowest metallicity; their [El/Fe] ratios show differences and analogies with those of the field population, in both the solar neighbourhood and the bulge/inner disk; iii) comparing the abundance ratios with the results of two chemical evolution models and with field star abundance distributions, we find that the abundance ratios of Mg, Ni, and Ca in NGC 6705 might require an inner birthplace, implying a subsequent variation in its RGC during its lifetime, which is consistent with previous orbit determination.
    Conclusions: Using the results of the first internal data release, we show the potential of the Gaia-ESO Survey through a homogeneous and detailed analysis of the cluster versus field populations to reveal the chemical structure of our Galaxy using a completely uniform analysis of different populations. We verify that the Gaia-ESO Survey data are able to identify the unique chemical properties of each cluster by pinpointing the composition of the interstellar medium at the epoch and place of formation. The full dataset of the Gaia-ESO Survey is a superlative tool to constrain the chemical evolution of our Galaxy by disentangling different formation and evolution scenarios. Based on observations collected with the FLAMES spectrograph at the VLT/UT2 telescope (Paranal Observatory, ESO, Chile), for the Gaia-ESO Large Public Survey (188.B-3002).
  66. Chemical and kinematical information is needed in order to understand and trace the formation history of our Galaxy. In the homogeneous large sample of F and G stars in the survey by Nordström et al. (2004), groups of stars with orbital parameters different from field stars were found by Helmi et al. (2006). Simulations of disrupted satellites showed that the groups had similar properties as infalling dwarf satellites would have after several Gyr. From high resolution spectra, we analyse elemental abundances of stars in 3 such groups with conserved kinematic properties. Here we present first results of s- and r- process element abundances in two such groups and compare with average field stars.
  67. Trumpler 20 is an old open cluster (OC) located toward the Galactic centre, at about 3 kpc from the Sun and ~7 kpc from the Galactic centre. Its position makes this cluster particularly interesting in the framework of the chemical properties of the Galactic disc because very few old OCs reside in the inner part of the disc. For this reason it has been selected as a cluster target of the Gaia-ESO Survey, and spectra of many stars in the main-sequence and red-clump phases are now available. Moreover, although it has been studied by several authors in the past, no consensus on the evolutionary status of Tr 20 has been reached. The heavy contamination of field stars (the line of sight of Tr 20 crosses the Carina spiral arm) complicates a correct interpretation. Another interesting aspect of the cluster is that it shows a broadened main-sequence turn-off and a prominent and extended red-clump, characteristics that are not easily explained by classical evolutionary models. Exploiting both spectroscopic information from the Gaia-ESO Survey (and the ESO archive) and literature photometry, weobtain a detailed and accurate analysis of the properties of the cluster. We make use of the first accurate metallicity measurement ever obtained from several spectra of red clump stars, and of cluster membership determination using radial velocities. According to the evolutionary models adopted, we find that Tr 20 has an age in the range 1.35-1.66 Gyr, an average reddening E(B - V) in the range 0.31-0.35 mag, and a distance modulus (m - M)0 between 12.64 and 12.72 mag. The spectroscopic metallicity is [Fe/H] = +0.17 dex. We discuss the structural properties of the object and constrain possible hypotheses for its broadened upper main sequence by estimating the effect of differential reddening and its extended red clump. Based on the data obtained at ESO telescopes under programme 188.B-3002 (the public Gaia-ESO spectroscopic survey, PIs Gilmore & Randich) and on the archive data of the programme 083.D-0671.Full Table 3 and the photometric catalogue with differential reddening corrections are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/561/A94
  68. Context. The homogenization of the stellar parameters is an important goal for large observational spectroscopic surveys, but it is very difficult to achieve it because of the diversity of the spectroscopic analysis methods used within a survey, such as spectrum synthesis and the equivalent width method. To solve this problem, constraints to the spectroscopic analysis can be set, such as the use of a common line-list.
    Aims: We present a procedure for selecting the best spectral lines from a given input line-list, which then allows us to derive accurate stellar parameters with the equivalent width method.
    Methods: To select the lines, we used four very well known benchmark stars, for which we have high-quality spectra. From an initial line-list, the equivalent width of each individual line was automatically measured for each benchmark star using ARES, then we performed a local thermodynamic equilibrium analysis with MOOG to compute individual abundances. The results allowed us to choose the best lines, which give consistent abundance values for all the benchmark stars from which we then created a final line-list.
    Results: To verify its consistency, the compiled final line-list was tested for a small sample of stars. These stars were selected to cover different ranges in the parameter space for FGK stars. We show that the obtained parameters agree well with previously determined values. Full Table 2 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/561/A21
  69. We study the chemical composition of two kinematically identified groups of stars in the Galactic disc. Based on dynamical properties these stars were suspected to belong to disrupted satellites. Using high resolution spectra obtained with the spectrograph FIES at the Nordic Optical Telescope, La Palma, we determine detailed elemental abundances of elements and look for possible chemical signatures that might give information about the formation history of these possibly accreted kinematic groups of stars. Our results reveal that abundances of chemical elements produced mainly by the r-process are overabundant and those mainly produced by the s-process are the same as in Galactic thin-disc dwarfs and models. The similar elemental abundance patterns were observed in the Galactic thick-disc stars. Similar chemical composition of project stars and the thick-disc stars might suggest that their formation histories are linked. The homogeneous chemical composition inside each of the groups together with their kinematic properties provide additional evidences of their common origin and possible relation to ancient merging events.
  70. We combined high quality photometry available in literature (Carraro et al., 2010AJ....140..954C, hereafter C10, and Platais et al., 2008, Cat. J/MNRAS/391/1482, hereafter P08) and the spectroscopic observations of the Gaia-ESO Survey to reevaluate the parameters of the open cluster Trumpler 20. 1370 star spectra, taken with UVES and GIRAFFE spectrograph at VLT/UT2, of both main sequence and red clump stars were exploited to estimate the radial velocity distribution of the cluster stars and select the most probable cluster members. 13 red clump stars observed with UVES were used to determine the cluster metallicity. With the improved information on metallicity and membership we used the photometric catalogues to estimate age, distance and average galactic reddening by means of the isochrone fitting method. We estimated the differential reddening on the cluster face and found to play a not negligible role on the CMD morphology. (2 data files).
  71. In order to investigate how magnetic activity influences a stellar evolution, we undertake a detailed study of photospheric abundances in a sample of RS CVn stars. Using the Nordic Optical Telescope we investigate abundances of more than 20 chemical elements, including carbon isotopes, nitrogen and other mixing-sensitive species. In this presentation we report on current results of the analysis, among which there are first evidences that extra-mixing processes may start acting in low-mass chromospherically active stars below a bump of the luminosity function of red giants.
  72. Context. The evolution of chemical elements in a galaxy is linked to its star formation history. Variations in star formation history are imprinted in the relative abundances of chemical elements produced in different supernova events and asymptotic giant branch stars.
    Aims: We determine detailed elemental abundances of s- and r-process elements in stars belonging to Group 3 of the Geneva-Copenhagen survey and compare their chemical composition with Galactic disc stars. The aim is to look for possible chemical signatures that might give information about the formation history of this kinematic group of stars, which is suggested to correspond to remnants of disrupted satellites.
    Methods: High-resolution spectra were obtained with the FIES spectrograph at the Nordic Optical Telescope, La Palma, and were analysed with a differential model atmosphere method. Comparison stars were observed and analysed with the same method.
    Results: Abundances of chemical elements produced mainly by the s-process are similar to those in the Galactic thin-disc dwarfs of the same metallicity, while abundances of chemical elements produced predominantly by the r-process are overabundant. The similar elemental abundances are observed in Galactic thick-disc stars.
    Conclusions: The chemical composition together with the kinematic properties and ages of stars in Group 3 of the Geneva-Copenhagen survey support a gas-rich satellite merger scenario as the most likely explanation for the origin. The similar chemical composition of stars in Group 3 and the thick-disc stars might suggest that their formation histories are linked.
  73. In this work we present the main atmospheric parameters, carbon, nitrogen and oxygen abundances, and 12C/13C ratios determined in a sample of 28 Galactic clump stars. Abundances of carbon were studied using the C2 band at 5086.2 Å. The wavelength interval 7980-8130 Å with strong CN features was analysed in order to determine nitrogen abundances and 12C/13C isotope ratios. The oxygen abundances were determined from the [O I] line at 6300 Å. The mean abundances of C, N and O abundances in the investigated clump stars support our previous estimations that, compared to the Sun and dwarf stars of the Galactic disc, carbon is depleted by about 0.2 dex, nitrogen is enhanced by 0.2 dex and oxygen is close to abundances in dwarfs. The 12C/13C and C/N ratios for galactic red clump stars analysed were compared to the evolutionary models of extra-mixing. The steeper drop of 12C/13C ratio in the model of thermohaline mixing by Charbonnel & Lagarde better reflects the observational data at low stellar masses than the more shallow model of cool bottom processing by Boothroyd & Sackmann. For stars of about 2 M masses a modelling of rotationally induced mixing should be considered with rotation of about 250 km s-1 at the time when a star was at the hydrogen-core-burning stage.
  74. We present a progress report on a chemical abundance analysis of two kinematic stellar groups in the Galactic disk, suspected to be relicts of disrupted satellites. Their origin remains an open question, but chemical tagging is providing new clues.
  75. Context. Galactic archeology is a powerful tool for investigating the formation and evolution of the Milky Way. We use this technique to study kinematic groups of F- and G-stars in the solar neighbourhood. From correlations between orbital parameters, three new coherent groups of stars were recently identified and suggested to correspond to remnants of disrupted satellites.
    Aims: We determine detailed elemental abundances in stars belonging to one of these groups and compare their chemical composition with Galactic disc stars. The aim is to look for possible chemical signatures that might give information about the history of this kinematic group of stars.
    Methods: High-resolution spectra were obtained with the FIES spectrograph at the Nordic Optical Telescope, La Palma, and analysed with a differential model atmosphere method. Comparison stars were observed and analysed with the same method.
    Results: The average value of [Fe/H] for the 20 stars investigated in this study is -0.69 ± 0.05 dex. Elemental abundances of oxygen and α-elements are overabundant in comparison with Galactic thin-disc dwarfs and thin-disc chemical evolution models. This abundance pattern has similar characteristics as the Galactic thick-disc.
    Conclusions: The homogeneous chemical composition together with the kinematic properties and ages of stars in the investigated Group 3 of the Geneva-Copenhagen survey provides evidence of their common origin and possible relation to an ancient merging event. The similar chemical composition of stars in the investigated group and the thick-disc stars might suggest that their formation histories are linked. Table 3 is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org
  76. Context. Investigations of abundances of carbon and nitrogen in the atmospheres of evolved stars of open clusters may provide comprehensive information on chemical composition changes caused by stellar evolution.
    Aims: Our main aim is to increase the number of open clusters with determined carbon-to nitrogen and carbon isotope ratios.
    Methods: High-resolution spectra were analysed using a differential model atmosphere method. Abundances of carbon were derived using the C2 Swan (0, 1) band head at 5635.5 Å (FEROS spectra) and the C2 Swan (1, 0) band head at 4737 Å (UVES spectra). The wavelength interval 7980-8130 Å, with strong CN features was analysed to determine nitrogen abundances and 12C/13C isotope ratios. The oxygen abundances were determined from the [O i] line at 6300 Å.
    Results: The average value of 12C/13C isotope ratios of Cr 261 is equal to 18 ± 2 in four giants and to 12 ± 1 in two clump stars; it is equal to 16 ± 1 in four clump stars of the open cluster NGC 6253. The mean C/N ratios in Cr 261 and NGC 6253 are equal to 1.67 ± 0.06 and 1.37 ± 0.09, respectively.
    Conclusions: The 12C/13C and C/N values in Cr 261 and NGC 6253 within limits of uncertainties agree with the theoretical model of thermohaline-induced mixing as well as with the cool-bottom processing model. Based on observations collected at ESO telescopes under programmes 65.N-0286, 169.D-0473.
  77. Not Available
  78. The Gaia-ESO Public Spectroscopic Survey has begun and will obtain high quality spectroscopy of some 100000 Milky Way stars, in the field and in open clusters, down to magnitude 19, systematically covering all the major components of the Milky Way. This survey will provide the first homogeneous overview of the distributions of kinematics and chemical element abundances in the Galaxy. The motivation, organisation and implementation of the Gaia-ESO Survey are described, emphasising the complementarity with the ESA Gaia mission. Spectra from the very first observing run of the survey are presented.
  79. We present detailed analysis of two groups of F- and G- type stars originally found to have similarities in their orbital parameters. The distinct kinematic properties suggest that they might originate from ancient accretion events in the Milky Way. From high resolution spectra taken with the spectrograph FIES at the Nordic Optical Telescope, La Palma, we determined abundances of oxygen, alpha- and r-process elements. Our results indicate that the sample of investigated stars is chemically homogeneous and the abundances of oxygen, alpha and r-process elements are overabundant in comparison with Galactic disk dwarfs. This provides the additional evidence that those stellar groups had the common formation and possible origin from disrupted satellites.
  80. A project devoted to astrometric and photometric observations of asteroids at the Molėtai Observatory is described. One of its most important results is the discovery of the asteroid 2010 BT3 belonging to the Amor group of the near-Earth objects. The results of astrometric and photometric observations of the asteroid are presented. The brightness variations of the asteroid are found to be about 0.2 mag in R. The orbit of the asteroid was computed from 96 observations. This orbit, combined with the apparent brightness, gives the absolute magnitude 21.34 mag and the diameter between 160 m and 360 m, taking albedos of S-type and C-type asteroids, respectively.
  81. The carbon and nitrogen abundances, C/N and especially carbon isotope ratios 12C / 13C are key tools for stellar evolution studies. In this presentation we overview available up to date analyses of C and N abundances in red clump stars of open clusters along with our recent results obtained for the open clusters NGC 6134 and IC 4651. The clump stars have accumulated all chemical composition changes, which have happened during their evolution along the giant branch and during the helium flash, thus are very trustful sources of information. A comparison of the observational data with theoretical models of stellar evolution shows that processes of extra-mixing in stars of 2-3 M turn-off masses are larger than predicted.
  82. We present the preliminary results of a project aimed at high resolution spectral analysis of stars in a kinematically identified stellar group, suspected to belong to a remnant of a disrupted satellite galaxy. The 16 stars analysed by now have a metallicity around - 0. 7 dex, an average isochrone age of about 12 Gyr, their chemical composition is homogeneous and distinct from the Galactic disk dwarfs. This provides further evidence of their common and maybe extragalactic origin.
  83. Hipparcos data have allowed the identification of a large number of clump stars in the solar neighbourhood. We discuss our present knowledge of their distributions of metallicities, CNO abundances, carbon isotope ratios and memberships of the first ascent giants and helium-core-burning stars.
  84. The detailed chemical composition of the atmosphere AY Cet (HD 7672) is determined from a high-resolution spectrum in the optical region. The main atmospheric parameters and the abundances of 22 chemical elements, including key species such as 12C, 13C, N, and O, are determined. A differential line analysis gives T_eff=5080 K, log g=3.0, [Fe/H]=-0.33, [C/Fe]=-0.17, [N/Fe]=0.17, [O/Fe]=0.05, C/N=1.58, and 12C/13C=21. Despite the high chromospheric activity, the optical spectrum of AY Cet provides a chemical composition typical for first ascent giants after the first dredge-up.
  85. In this study we present abundances of 12C, 13C, N, O and up to 26 other chemical elements in two first-ascent giants and two core-helium-burning 'clump' stars of the open cluster NGC 2506. Abundances of carbon were derived using the C2 Swan (0,1) band head at 5635.5 Å. The wavelength interval 7940-8130 Å, with strong CN features, was analysed in order to determine nitrogen abundances and carbon isotope ratios. The oxygen abundances were determined from the [O I] line at 6300 Å. NGC 2506 was found to have a mean [Fe/H]=-0.24 ± 0.05 (standard deviation). Compared with the Sun and other dwarf stars of the Galactic disc, mean abundances in the investigated clump stars suggest that carbon is depleted by about 0.2 dex, nitrogen is overabundant by about 0.3 dex and other chemical elements have abundance ratios close to solar. The C/N and 12C/13C ratios are lowered to 1.25 ± 0.27 and 11 ± 3, respectively.
  86. We present an analysis of high-resolution spectra of three core-helium-burning 'clump' stars and two first ascent giants in the open cluster IC 4651. Atmospheric parameters (Teff, log g, vt and [Fe/H]) were determined in our previous study by Carretta et al. In this study, we present abundances of C, N, O and up to 24 other chemical elements. Abundances of carbon were derived using the C2 Swan (0, 1) band head at 5635.5 Å. The wavelength interval 7980-8130 Å, with strong CN features, was analysed in order to determine nitrogen abundances and 12C/13C isotope ratios. The oxygen abundances were determined from the [O I] line at 6300 Å. Compared with the Sun and other dwarf stars of the Galactic disc, mean abundances in the investigated clump stars suggest that carbon is depleted by about 0.3 dex, nitrogen is overabundant by about 0.2 dex and oxygen is close to solar. This has the effect of lowering the mean C/N ratio to 1.36 ± 0.11. The mean 12C/13C ratios are lowered to 16 ± 2. Other investigated chemical elements have abundance ratios close to the solar ones. a Star numbers, V and B-V from Lindoff (1972).
  87. Abundances of 22 chemical elements, including the key elements and isotopes such as 12C, 13C, N and O, are investigated in the spectrum of 33 Psc, a single-lined RS CVn-type binary of low magnetic activity. The high resolution spectra were observed on the Nordic Optical Telescope and analyzed with the MARCS model atmospheres. The following main parameters have been determined: T eff = 4750 K, log g = 2.8, [Fe/H] = -0.09, [C/Fe] = -0.04, [N/Fe] = 0.23, [O/Fe] = 0.05, C/N = 2.14, 12C/13C = 30, which show the first-dredge-up mixing signatures and no extra-mixing.
  88. The Hipparcos orbiting observatory has revealed a large number of helium-core-burning ‘clump’ stars in the Galactic field. These low-mass stars exhibit signatures of extra mixing processes that require modelling beyond the first dredge-up of standard models. The 12C/13C ratio is the most robust diagnostic of deep mixing because it is insensitive to the adopted stellar parameters. In this paper we present 12C/13C determinations in a sample of 34 Galactic clump stars as well as abundances of nitrogen, carbon and oxygen. Abundances of carbon were studied using the C2 Swan (0,1) band head at 5635.5 Å. The wavelength interval 7980-8130 Å with strong CN features was analysed in order to determine nitrogen abundances and 12C/13C isotope ratios. The oxygen abundances were determined from the [O I] line at 6300 Å. Compared with the Sun and dwarf stars of the Galactic disc, mean abundances in the investigated clump stars suggest that carbon is depleted by about 0.2 dex, nitrogen is enhanced by 0.2 dex and oxygen is close to abundances in dwarfs. Comparisons to evolutionary models show that the stars fall into two groups: one is of first ascent giants with carbon isotope ratios altered according to the first dredge-up prediction and the other is of helium-core-burning stars with carbon isotope ratios altered by extra mixing. The stars investigated fall to these groups in approximately equal numbers.
  89. The main atmospheric parameters and abundances of the iron-group elements (vanadium, chromium, iron, cobalt and nickel) are determined for 62 red giant `clump' stars revealed in the Galactic field by the Hipparcos orbiting observatory. The stars form a homogeneous sample with the mean value of temperature Teff = 4750 +/- 160K, of surface gravity log g = 2.41 +/- 0.26 and the mean value of metallicity [Fe/H] = -0.04 +/- 0.15dex. A Gaussian fit to the [Fe/H] distribution produces the mean <[Fe/H]> = -0.01 and dispersion σ[Fe/H] = 0.08. The near-solar metallicity and small dispersion of σ[Fe/H] of clump stars of the Galaxy obtained in this paper confirm the theoretical model of the Hipparcos clump by Girardi & Salaris. This suggests that nearby clump stars are (in the mean) relatively young objects, reflecting mainly the near-solar metallicities developed in the local disc during the last few Gyr of its history. We find iron-group element to iron-abundance ratios in clump giants to be close to solar.
  90. We present an analysis of high-resolution spectra of six core-helium-burning `clump' stars in the open cluster NGC 6134. Atmospheric parameters (Teff, logg, vt and [Fe/H]) were determined in our previous study by Carretta et al. (2004). In this study we present abundances of C, N, O and up to 24 other chemical elements. Abundances of carbon were derived using the C2 Swan (0,1) band head at 5635.5 Å (FEROS spectra) and the C2 Swan (1,0) band head at 4737 Å (UVES spectra). The wavelength interval 7980-8130 Å, with strong CN features, was analysed in order to determine nitrogen abundances and 12C/13C isotope ratios. The oxygen abundances were determined from the [OI] line at 6300 Å. Compared to the Sun and other dwarf stars of the Galactic disc, mean abundances in the investigated clump stars suggest that carbon is depleted by about 0.2 dex, nitrogen is overabundant by about 0.3 dex and oxygen is underabundant by about 0.1 dex. This has the effect of lowering the mean C/N ratio to 1.2 +/- 0.2. The mean 12C/13C ratios are lowered to 9 +/- 2.5. Concerning other chemical elements, the analysis of sodium and magnesium lines, lines of other α-elements, iron-group and heavier chemical elements gave abundance ratios close to the solar ones. Based on observations collected at ESO telescopes under programmes 65.N-0286 and in part 169.D-0473 E-mail: sarunas.mikolaitis@tfai.vu.lt
  91. Available from the Minor Planet Center.
  92. Not Available
  93. Not Available
  94. Division IX provides a forum for astronomers engaged in the planning, development, construction, and calibration of optical and infrared telescopes and instrumentation, as well as observational procedures including data processing. A few years ago, discussions were started about changes in the structure of Division IX, with the aim of bringing it more in line with today's world of large coordinated projects and multi-national observatories. The course of this process, and further steps to be taken in the period from 2009 to 2012, were at the focus of the deliberations at the business meeting of Division IX at the IAU General Assembly in Rio de Janeiro.
  95. Hipparcos orbiting observatory has revealed a large number of helium-core- burning “clump” stars of the Galactic field. These low-mass stars exhibit signatures of extra-mixing processes that require modeling beyond the standard stellar theory. In this contribution we overview available results of 12C, 13C, N and O abundances obtained by high-resolution spectra for clump stars and discuss them in the light of current predictions of stellar evolution models.
  96. Not Available
  97. From high resolution spectra taken with the spectrograph FIES on the Nordic Optical Telescope, La Palma, we measure abundances of oxygen and α-elements in order to characterize stars which from their dynamical properties are suspected to have originated in disrupted satellites. We find that the chemical composition of investigated stars is homogeneous and distinct from Galactic disk dwarfs, which is providing further evidence of their extragalactic origin.
  98. Available from the Minor Planet Center.
  99. Not Available
  100. Not Available
  101. We present a gridified stellar energy flux modelling software SYNTSPEC for stellar spectra analysis. It is an example of data- and compute-intensive application running on the testbed of the Enabling Grids for E-sciencE (EGEE) Grid compatible infrastructure, which brings the new quality to the research in astrophysics. The multi job application is running within the GRIDCOM system - a user friendly interface that allows a virtual work of a physically spread scientific group. The SYNTSPEC software calculates stellar energy fluxes and normalized to the continuum spectra that are applied for stellar classification and determination of chemical compositions, effective temperatures, surface gravities and other parameters of stars. The SYNTSPEC application benefits from usage of large computing resources, which makes possible calculations of synthetic stellar spectra for significant wavelength ranges and numbers of stellar parameter combinations. The specific energy flux modelling will be used for the analysis of data, which will be produced by the European Space Agency`s Gaia space observatory.
  102. Photospheric parameters and chemical composition are determined for the single-lined chromospherically active RS CVn-type star 29 Draconis (HD 160538). From the high resolution spectra obtained on the Nordic Optical Telescope, abundances of 22 chemical elements, including the key elements such as 12C, 13C, N and O, were investigated. The differential line analysis with the MARCS model atmospheres gives T eff = 4720 K, log g = 2.5, [Fe/H] = --0.20, [C/Fe] = --0.14, [N/Fe] = 0.08, [O/Fe] = --0.04, C/N = 2.40, 12C/13C = 16. The low value of the 12C/13C ratio gives a hint that extra mixing processes in low-mass chromospherically active stars may start earlier than the theory of stellar evolution predicts.
  103. Photospheric parameters and chemical composition are determined for the single-lined chromospherically active RS CVn-type star λ And (HD 222107). From the high resolution spectra obtained on the Nordic Optical Telescope, abundances of 22 chemical elements and isotopes, including such key elements as 12C, 13C, N and O, were investigated. The differential line analysis with the MARCS model atmospheres gives T eff=4830 K, log g=2.8, [Fe/H]=-0.53, [C/Fe]=0.09, [N/Fe]=0.35, [O/Fe]=0.45, C/N=2.21, 12C/13C = 14. The value of 12C/13C ratio for a star of the RS CVn-type is determined for the first time, and its low value gives a hint that extra-mixing processes may start acting in low-mass chromospherically active stars below the bump of the luminosity function of red giants.
  104. Not Available
  105. E-infrastructure in Baltic States currently is rapidly developing. A large impact in this area is given by the European Commission FP6 project "Baltic Grid". A review of progress in this field as well as currently developed grid applications in astrophysics are presented.
  106. Commission 36 covers the whole field of the physics of stellar atmospheres. The scientific activity in this large subject has been very intense during the last triennium and led to the publication of a large number of papers, which makes a complete report quite impractical. We have therefore decided to keep the format of the preceding report: first a list of areas of current research, then Web links for obtaining further information.
  107. Among the most interesting applications of the VLT and ELT are high-resolution spectral investigations of stars in Local Group galaxies. It is of paramount importance to determine detailed abundances of a variety of chemical elements in these stellar systems to explore their chemical evolution and search for its dependence on global parameters like mass and morphological type. In this contribution we give a short overview of the outstanding observational tasks of the VLT and ELT in the next decades.
  108. Not Available
  109. During the Observational Stellar Astrophysics research course in Lithuania, we analyzed the spectra of four red horizontal branch stars obtained on the Nordic Optical Telescope and FIES spectrograph. For the analysis we used the program SIU running under IDL. Overall, the metallicity for these stars seems to be higher than what is listed in the literature. We have determined the main atmospheric parameters and abundances of C, N, O and Mg chemical elements. We were only able to get the [O/Fe] abundance for one star because of telluric lines. The abundances were compared with stellar evolutionary models, both for finding the stellar mass and to investigate how well these stars follow theoretical predictions of evolutionary abundance alterations.
  110. Not Available
  111. The business meeting of Commission 36 was held during the General Assembly in Prague on 16 August. It was attended by about 15 members. The issues presented included a review of the work made by members of Commission 36, and the election of the new Organising Committee. We note that a comprehensive report on the activities of the commission during the last triennium has been published in Reports on Astronomy, Transactions IAU Volume XXVIA. The scientific activity of the members of the commission has been very intense, and has led to the publication of a large number of papers.
  112. Chemical abundances in three M supergiants in the Local Group dwarf irregular galaxy IC 1613 have been determined using high-resolution spectra obtained with the UVES spectrograph on the ESO 8.2 m Kueyen telescope. A detailed synthetic-spectrum analysis has been used to determine the atmospheric parameters and abundances of O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, La, and Eu. We find the overall metallicity of the stars to be [Fe/H] = -0.67 ± 0.09 and the age 9-13 Myr, which is in excellent agreement with the present-day values in the age-metallicity relationship model of IC 1613 by Skillman et al. We have found that the three supergiants investigated have a mean [α/Fe] equal to about -0.1, which is lower than seen in Galactic stars at the same metallicity and is in agreement with the results obtained in other dwarf irregular galaxies. The oxygen abundances are in agreement with the upper values of the nebular oxygen determinations in IC 1613. The abundance ratios of s- and r-process elements to iron are enhanced relative to solar by about 0.3 dex. The abundance pattern of the elements studied is similar to that of the Small Magellanic Cloud, except for Co and Ni, which are underabundant in the SMC. The observed elemental abundances are generally in very good agreement with the recent chemical evolution model of Yuk and Lee. Based on observations collected with the Very Large Telescope and the 2.2 m Telescope of the European Southern Observatory within the Observing Programs 70.B-0361(A) and 072.D-0113(D).
  113. The area of the open cluster NGC 1647 in Taurus is investigated by CCD photometry in the Vilnius seven-color system. Magnitudes and color indices are determined for 433 stars down to V=15.0mag in the 45arcmin diameter area. For 252 of them photometric spectral and luminosity classes, interstellar reddenings, extinctions and distances are obtained. According to the CDS WEBDA database, 89 of them have a high cluster membership probability. Their mean distance from the Sun is 555+/-74pc, excluding four stars which seem to be field stars. The main sequence starts at spectral class B7 V which corresponds to a cluster age of about 150 million years. Cluster members show a differential interstellar extinction ranging from 0.8 to 1.8mag. The mean extinction of the cluster stars is 1.12+/-0.25mag. Interstellar extinction in the area is dominated by the Taurus dark cloud complex at 160pc. Color excesses of individual stars correlate well with the 100um dust thermal emission intensity. The cluster shape is investigated by counting stars down to K=15.6mag and is found to be elongated in the direction roughly perpendicular to the Milky Way, with the flattening 0.4. (4 data files).
  114. Not Available
  115. We describe the observational project devoted to astrometric observations of Near-Earth Objects (NEO), main belt asteroids and comets at the Moletai Observatory, Lithuania. Exposures are obtained with the two telescopes of the observatory: 0.35/0.50-m f/3.5 Maksutov telescope and the 1.65-m f/3.1 reflector with a CCD camera. The results of more than 10000 positions of asteroids and comets have been published in the Minor Planet Circulars and Minor Planet Electronic Circulars. During the 2001--2006 period 125 new main belt asteroids were discovered and a few NEO objects were detected independently.
  116. Not Available
  117. Commission 36 covers all the physics of stellar atmospheres. The scientific activity in this large field has been very intense during the last triennium and led to the publication of a large number of papers which makes an exhaustive report practically not feasible. As a consequence we decided to keep the format of the preceding report: first a list of areas of current research, then web links for obtaining further information.
  118. The European Gaia astrometry mission is due for launch in 2011. Gaia will rely on the proven principles of the ESA Hipparcos mission to create an all-sky survey of about one billion stars throughout our Galaxy and beyond, by observing all objects down to 20 mag. Through its massive measurement of stellar distances, motions and multicolour photometry, it will provide fundamental data necessary for unravelling the structure, formation and evolution of the Galaxy. This paper presents the design and performance of the broad- and medium-band set of photometric filters adopted as the baseline for Gaia. The 19 selected passbands (extending from the UV to the far-red), the criteria and the methodology on which this choice has been based are discussed in detail. We analyse the photometric capabilities for characterizing the luminosity, temperature, gravity and chemical composition of stars. We also discuss the automatic determination of these physical parameters for the large number of observations involved, for objects located throughout the entire Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. Finally, the capability of the photometric system (PS) to deal with the main Gaia science case is outlined.
  119. The exceptionally high luminosities of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), gradually emerging as extremely useful probes of star formation, make them promising tools for exploration of the high-redshift Universe. Here we present a carefully selected sample of Swift GRBs, intended to estimate in an unbiased way the GRB mean redshift (z_mean), constraints on the fraction of high-redshift bursts and an upper limit on the fraction of heavily obscured afterglows. We find that z_mean = 2.8 and that at least 7% of GRBs originate at z > 5. In addition, consistent with pre-Swift observations, at most 20% of afterglows can be heavily obscured. The redshift distribution of the sample is qualitatively consistent with models where the GRB rate is proportional to the star formation rate in the Universe. We also report optical, near-infrared and X-ray observations of the afterglow of GRB 050814, which was seen to exhibit very red optical colours. By modelling its spectral energy distribution we find that z = 5.3 ± 0.3. The high mean redshift of GRBs and their wide redshift range clearly demonstrates their suitability as efficient probes of galaxies and the intergalactic medium over a significant fraction of the history of the Universe.
  120. The most recently discovered Galactic component - thick disk - still needs high-resolution spectral investigations since its origin and evolution is not understood enough. Elemental abundance ratios in the metallicity range -0.68 ≤ [Fe/H] ≤ -0.10 were determined in a sample of 10 thick-disk dwarfs and compared with results of other stars investigated as well as with models of thin disk chemical evolution.
  121. In this contribution we present the results based on high-resolution spectra of 45 clump stars of the Galactic field. The main atmospheric parameters and abundances of 12C, 13C, N, O and other mixing sensitive chemical elements were investigated. Elemental ratios in the sample of field stars are compared to the results available for evolved stars in open clusters and to the theoretical prediction of extra mixing in stellar interiors.
  122. Not Available
  123. High-resolution spectra of six giants and three core-helium-burning “clump” stars in the open cluster NGC 7789 have been obtained with the SOFIN spectrograph on the Nordic Optical Telescope to investigate abundances of up to 20 chemical elements. Abundances of carbon were studied using the C2 Swan (0, 1) band head at 5635.5 Å. The wavelength interval 7980 8130 Å with strong CN features was analysed in order to determine nitrogen abundances and 12C/13C isotope ratios. The oxygen abundances were determined from the [O I] line at 6300 Å. The overall metallicity of evolved stars in the cluster was found to be close to solar ([Fe/H]=-0.04±0.05). Compared with the Sun and other dwarf stars of the Galactic disk, mean abundances in the investigated giant stars suggest that carbon is depleted by about 0.2 dex, and nitrogen and oxygen are close to solar. In the clump stars investigated, carbon is depleted by about 0.2 dex, the mean abundance of nitrogen is enhanced by 0.26 dex and oxygen is lower by 0.14 dex. This has the effect of lowering the mean C/N ratios to the value of 1.9±0.5 in the giant stars and to the value of 1.3±0.2 in the clump stars. The mean 12C/13C ratios are lowered to about the same value of 9±1 in the giants and clump stars investigated. Concerning other chemical elements an overabundance of sodium is noticeable and of silicon and calcium one is suspected. Abundances of iron-group and heavier chemical elements in all nine stars were found to be close to solar. Table 1 is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?A+A/431/933 Based on observations made with the Nordic Optical Telescope, which is operated on the island of La Palma jointly by Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden, in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias.
  124. Not Available
  125. Not Available
  126. The area of the open cluster NGC 1647 in Taurus is investigated by CCD photometry in the Vilnius seven-color system. Magnitudes and color indices are determined for 433 stars down to V = 15.0 mag in the 45 arcmin diameter area. For 252 of them photometric spectral and luminosity classes, interstellar reddenings, extinctions and distances are obtained. According to the CDS WEBDA database, 89 of them have a high cluster membership probability. Their mean distance from the Sun is 555±74 pc, excluding four stars which seem to be field stars. The main sequence starts at spectral class B7 V which corresponds to a cluster age of about 150 million years. Cluster members show a differential interstellar extinction ranging from 0.8 to 1.8 mag. The mean extinction of the cluster stars is 1.12±0.25 mag. Interstellar extinction in the area is dominated by the Taurus dark cloud complex at 160 pc. Color excesses of individual stars correlate well with the 100 μm dust thermal emission intensity. The cluster shape is investigated by counting stars down to K=15.6 mag and is found to be elongated in the direction roughly perpendicular to the Milky Way, with the flattening ˜0.4.
  127. Photoelectric Vilnius seven-color photometry is presented and analyzed for a sample of 24 red giant branch and clump stars in the open cluster NGC 7789. For each star we have determined photometric spectral type, absolute magnitude, interstellar reddening, effective temperature, metallicity, and surface gravity. From averages over the stars in the sample we find the mean reddening to the cluster E Y-V = 0.21± 0.02 (s.d.), or E B-V = 0.25, and the apparent distance modulus (m-M) V = 12.21± 0.10 (s.d.), which yield a distance of 1840 pc. The mean overall metallicity is found to be [Fe/H] = -0.18± 0.09 (s.d.). The clump stars, on average, appear to be slightly more metal-rich than the other red giants, which is most probably caused by evolutionary changes of carbon and nitrogen molecular bands falling in the photometric passbands. A difference in mass between the two groups of stars has also been detected, which suggests that the clump stars might have undergone extra mass loss before reaching their core He-burning phase of evolution.
  128. The spectra were obtained at the Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT) with the SOFIN echelle spectrograph in July of 2001. (1 data file).
  129. High-resolution spectra of nine stars in the open cluster NGC 7789 have been obtained with the SOFIN spectrograph on the Nordic Optical Telescope to investigate abundances of more than 20 chemical elements including most sensitive to internal stellar processes as carbon nitrogen sodium aluminium and others. Abundances of carbon were studied using the C2 Swan (01) band head at 563.55 nm. The wavelength interval 798-813 nm with strong CN features was analyzed in order to determine nitrogen abundances and carbon isotope ratios. The oxygen abundances were determined from the [OI] line at 630.0 nm. The abundance results are discussed in the light of theories of various mixing episodes that are predicted to occur during stellar evolution.
  130. Chemical abundances in three giants in Terzan 7, a globular cluster associated with the Sagittarius dwarf galaxy, have been determined using high-resolution spectra obtained with the UVES spectrograph on the ESO 8.2 m Kueyen telescope. We find the overall metallicity of the stars to be [Fe/H]=-0.61+/-0.07, which is slightly higher than that previously evaluated from photometry and used for the age determination of this cluster. This metallicity yields an age of about 6 Gyr, which is slightly lower than derived from previous estimates. The relative abundance ratios of various chemical elements to iron lie between those of its host galaxy's metal-poor and metal-rich stars and reveal an intriguing similarity to the pattern seen in the Large Magellanic Cloud.
  131. The area of the open cluster NGC 2395 in Gemini is investigated by CCD photometry in the Vilnius seven-color system. Magnitudes, color indices, photometric spectral types, color excesses, interstellar extinctions and distances are determined for 163 stars down to {\msf V} = 15.75 mag in the 25' diameter area. Twenty stars at a mean distance of 410 pc are suspected to be cluster members. The main sequence starts at the spectral class F5. Two evolved F5 stars and two red giants are present; the cluster's age should be about 1.5 Gyr. The suspected cluster stars show a differential interstellar extinction ranging from 0.0 to 0.6 mag. Interstellar extinction in the area starts at about the cluster's distance. At larger distances the observed extinction values are scattered between zero and 0.7 mag. Among the suspected cluster members only two K dwarfs are present. It is possible that NGC 2395 has suffered significantly from Galactic tidal distortion on its low-mass star content.
  132. Not Available
  133. The Sagittarius dwarf spheroidal galaxy is slowly disintegrating and merging with the Milky Way. The detailed chemical abundance studies of several stars belonging to this galaxy have indicated quite a wide range of metallicities -1.5 < [Fe/H]< +0.1 and some abundance differences when compared with the Milky Way stars. In this contribution we report on abundances of more than 20 chemical elements in three stars of the globular cluster Terzan 7 obtained using VLT UVES spectra of resolving power near 30000. The cluster is of the intermediate metal-deficiency [Fe/H]=-0.61 and brings a useful link between the abundance results we had for the metal-deficient and metal-abundant stars in this galaxy. The chemical enrichment history of the Sagittarius galaxy is discussed
  134. The sensitivity of stellar spectra to C, N, O and α -process element abundances is discussed with the aim of taking this effect into account when selecting a photometric system for the Gaia orbiting observatory. On the basis of a spectrometric, photometric and theoretical study of spectra of evolved first-ascent giants and clump stars in the open cluster NGC 7789 it is demonstrated that evolutionary alterations of carbon and nitrogen abundances can cause noticeable spectral changes and, if not taken into account, may yield misleading photometric [Fe/H] determinations. Carbon features in stellar atmospheres show a particularly complex behavior being dependent on mixing processes in stars, on the stellar surface gravity and on the abundance of oxygen which can also be altered by different reasons. NH bands could serve for the evaluation of mixing processes in stars and the interpretation of carbon dominated spectral regions. Abundances of α -process elements can be evaluated photometrically by using the direct indicators -- Ca II H and K lines and Mg I b triplet.
  135. The sensitivity of stellar spectra to α/Fe abundance changes is investigated with the aim to be detected photometrically and employed for the scientific goals of the GAIA mission. A grid of plane parallel, line blanketed, flux constant, LTE model atmospheres with different [α/Fe] ratios was calculated. As a first step, the modelled stellar energy fluxes for solar-type stars and giants were computed and intercompared. The spectral sensitivity to α/Fe abundance changes is noticeable and has to be taken into account when selecting photometric filters for GAIA. The CaII H and K lines and MgI b triplet are the most sensitive direct indicators of α/Fe abundance changes.
  136. High-resolution spectra of 13 core helium-burning stars in the thick disk of the Galaxy have been obtained with the SOFIN spectrograph on the Nordic Optical Telescope to investigate abundances of up to 22 chemical elements. Abundances of carbon were studied using the C2 Swan (0, 1) band head at 5635.5 Å. The wavelength interval 7980-8130 Å with strong CN features was analysed in order to determine nitrogen abundances and 12C/13C isotope ratios. The oxygen abundances were determined from the [O I] line at 6300 Å. Abundances in the investigated stars suggest that carbon is depleted by about 0.3 dex, nitrogen is enhanced by more than 0.4 dex and oxygen is unaltered. The 12C/13C ratios are lowered and lie between values 3 and 7 which is in agreement with ``cool bottom processing'' predictions (Boothroyd & Sackmann 1999). The C/N ratios in the investigated stars are lowered to values between 0.7 and 1.2 which is less than present day theoretical predictions and call for further studies of stellar mixing processes. Abundance ratios of O, Mg, Eu and other heavy chemical elements to iron in the investigated stars show a pattern characteristic of thick disk stars. The results provide evidence that the thick disk population has a distinct chemical history from the thin disk. The onset of the bulk of SN Ia is suggested to appear at [Fe/H] ~ -0.6 dex. Based on observations obtained at the Nordic Optical Telescope, La Palma. Table 1 is only available in electronic at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http:/cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/380/578
  137. High-resolution spectra of 13 core helium-burning stars in the thick disk of the Galaxy have been obtained with the SOFIN spectrograph on the Nordic Optical Telescope to investigate abundances of up to 22 chemical elements. Abundances of carbon were studied using the C2 Swan (0, 1) band head at 5635.5Å. The wavelength interval 7980-8130Å with strong CN features was analysed in order to determine nitrogen abundances and 12C/13C isotope ratios. The oxygen abundances were determined from the [O I] line at 6300Å. Abundances in the investigated stars suggest that carbon is depleted by about 0.3dex, nitrogen is enhanced by more than 0.4dex and oxygen is unaltered. The 12C/13C ratios are lowered and lie between values 3 and 7 which is in agreement with "cool bottom processing" predictions (Boothroyd & Sackmann, 1999ApJ...510..232B). The C/N ratios in the investigated stars are lowered to values between 0.7 and 1.2 which is less than present day theoretical predictions and call for further studies of stellar mixing processes. Abundance ratios of O, Mg, Eu and other heavy chemical elements to iron in the investigated stars show a pattern characteristic of thick disk stars. The results provide evidence that the thick disk population has a distinct chemical history from the thin disk. The onset of the bulk of SN Ia is suggested to appear at [Fe/H]~-0.6dex. (2 data files).
  138. High-resolution spectra of six core helium-burning `clump' stars and three giants in the open cluster M 67 have been obtained with the SOFIN spectrograph on the Nordic Optical Telescope to investigate abundances of up to 25 chemical elements. Abundances of carbon were studied using the C2 Swan (0,1) band head at 5635.5Å. The wavelength interval 7980-8130Å with strong CN features was analysed in order to determine nitrogen abundances and 12C/13C isotope ratios. The oxygen abundances were determined from the [O I] line at 6300Å. The overall metallicity of the cluster stars was found to be close to solar ([Fe/H]=-0.03+/-0.03). Compared with the Sun and other dwarf stars of the Galactic disk, as well as with dwarf stars of M 67 itself, abundances in the investigated stars suggest that carbon is depleted by about 0.2dex, nitrogen is enhanced by about 0.2dex and oxygen is unaltered. Among other mixing-sensitive chemical elements an overabundance of sodium may be suspected. The mean C/N and 12C/13C ratios are lowered to the values of 1.7+/-0.2 and 24+/-4 in the giants and to the values of 1.4+/-0.2 and 16+/-4 in the clump stars. These results suggest that extra mixing of CN-cycled material to the stellar surface takes place after the He-core flash. Abundances of heavy chemical elements in all nine stars were found to be almost identical and close to solar. (2 data files).
  139. High-resolution spectra of six core helium- burning `clump' stars and three giants in the open cluster M 67 have been obtained with the SOFIN spectrograph on the Nordic Optical Telescope to investigate abundances of up to 25 chemical elements. Abundances of carbon were studied using the C2 Swan (0,1) band head at 5635.5 Å. The wavelength interval 7980-8130 Å with strong CN features was analysed in order to determine nitrogen abundances and 12C/13C isotope ratios. The oxygen abundances were determined from the [O I] line at 6300 Å. The overall metallicity of the cluster stars was found to be close to solar ([Fe/H]=-0.03 ± 0.03). Compared with the Sun and other dwarf stars of the Galactic disk, as well as with dwarf stars of M 67 itself, abundances in the investigated stars suggest that carbon is depleted by about 0.2 dex, nitrogen is enhanced by about 0.2 dex and oxygen is unaltered. Among other mixing-sensitive chemical elements an overabundance of sodium may be suspected. The mean C/N and 12C/13C ratios are lowered to the values of 1.7 ± 0.2 and 24 ± 4 in the giants and to the values of 1.4±0.2 and 16±4 in the clump stars. These results suggest that extra mixing of CN-cycled material to the stellar surface takes place after the He-core flash. Abundances of heavy chemical elements in all nine stars were found to be almost identical and close to solar. Based on observations obtained at the Nordic Optical Telescope, La Palma Tables 2 and 3 are only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html
  140. Abundance anomalies caused by the mixing to the surface of material processed in nuclear reactions inside a star are dependent on parameters of stellar atmospheres (e.g. the effective temperature, gravity and overall metallicity). However, a variety of evolved stars investigated is rather limited. In our study, we present results for 20 cool, metal-abundant stars with a double energy source (helium burning in the centre and hydrogen burning in the shell). High resolution spectroscopic observations of these stars were accomplished on the Nordic Optical Telescope. The main atmospheric parameters and abundances of more than twenty chemical elements, including 12C, 13C, N, O, Na, Mg and Al, were determined and evolutionary effects investigated.
  141. We try to understand the s- and r-process elements vs Ti/Fe plots derived by Jehin et al. (1999) for mildly metal-poor stars within the framework of the analytical semi-empirical models for these elements by Pagel & Tautvaisiene (1995, 1997). Jehin et al. distinguished two Pop II subgroups: IIa with alpha/Fe and s-elements/Fe increasing together, which they attribute to pure SNII activity, and IIb with constant alpha/Fe and a range in s/Fe which they attribute to a prolonged accretion phase in parent globular clusters. However, their sample consists mainly of thick-disk stars with only 4 clear halo members, of which two are `anomalous' in the sense defined by Nissen & Schuster (1997). Only the remaining two halo stars (and one in Nissen & Schuster's sample) depart significantly from Y/Ti (or s/alpha) ratios predicted by our model.
  142. Previous models for the chemical evolution of the Magellanic Clouds have assumed either a steepened IMF compared to the solar neighbourhood or preferential expulsion of oxygen and α-particle elements by selective galactic winds. These assumptions were largely motivated by a belief that the O/Fe ratio in the Clouds is substantially lower than in the Galaxy, but the difference appears to have been exaggerated: Galactic supergiants have a similar O/Fe ratio as Cloud supergiants, there is no corresponding effect in Mg and other α-elements and a combination of data from planetary nebulae, H II regions and supernova remnants indicates an O/Fe ratio more or less equal to solar. Consequently new analytical models for the chemical evolution of the Magellanic Clouds have been developed, assuming chemical yields and time delays identical to those we previously assumed for the solar neighbourhood, but assuming (in addition to infall) non-selective galactic winds and burst-like modes of star formation represented by discontinuous variations in the star formation rate per unit gas mass. We find adequate agreement with age-metallicity relations and element:element ratios within their substantial uncertainties, whereas our LMC model turns out to give an excellent fit to the anomalous Galactic halo stars discovered by Nissen and Schuster (1997). It also gives an enhanced SNIa/SNII ratio compared to the solar neighbourhood, due to the assumption that the SFR has declined in the past 1 to 2 Gyr.
  143. Not Available
  144. Previous models for the chemical evolution of the Magellanic Clouds have assumed either a steepened IMF compared to the solar neighbourhood or preferential expulsion of oxygen and α-particle elements by selective galactic winds. These assumptions were largely motivated by a belief that the O/Fe ratio in the Clouds is substantially lower than in the Galaxy, but the difference appears to have been exaggerated: Galactic supergiants have a similar O/Fe ratio as Cloud supergiants, there is no corresponding effect in Mg and other α-elements and a combination of data from planetary nebulae, H II regions and supernova remnants indicates an O/Fe ratio more or less equal to solar. Consequently new analytical models for the chemical evolution of the Magellanic Clouds have been developed in collaboration with Grazina Tautvaivsiene of the Institute for Theoretical Physics and Astronomy, Vilnius, Lithuania, assuming chemical yields and time delays identical to those we previously assumed for the solar neighbourhood. We include infall, non-selective galactic winds and burst-like modes of star formation represented by discontinuous variations in the star formation rate per unit gas mass. We find adequate agreement with age-metallicity relations and element:element ratios within their substantial uncertainties, whereas our LMC model turns out to give an excellent fit to the anomalous Galactic halo stars discovered by Nissen & Schuster (1997). It also gives an enhanced SNIa/SNII ratio compared to the solar neighbourhood, due to the assumption that the SFR has declined in the past 1 to 2 Gyr.
  145. Observations by the Hipparcos satellite clearly demonstrated that a population of He-core burning stars is a prominent feature of the colour-magnitude diagram of stars in the solar neighbourhood. However this class of evolved stars, being hardly identified in the Galactic field, so far is barely investigated by means of high-resolution spectroscopy. Identification of metal abundant He-core burning stars is especially difficult since their main atmospheric parameters are very similar to those of ordinary giants. The open cluster M 67 is a very good exhibitor of metal abundant He-core burning stars. We have observed 9 stars of this cluster on the Nordic Optical Telescope and determined abundances of more than 20 chemical elements in their atmospheres. In our contribution we will present the results of the analysis.
  146. Previous models for the chemical evolution of the Magellanic Clouds have assumed either a steepened IMF compared to the solar neighbourhood or preferential expulsion of oxygen and α-particle elements by selective galactic winds. These assumptions were largely motivated by a belief that the O/Fe ratio in the Clouds is substantially lower than in the Galaxy, but the difference appears to have been exaggerated: Galactic supergiants have a similar O/Fe ratio as Cloud supergiants, there is no corresponding effect in Mg and other α-elements and a combination of data from planetary nebulae, H II regions and supernova remnants indicates an O/Fe ratio more or less equal to solar. Consequently new analytical models for the chemical evolution of the Magellanic Clouds have been developed, assuming chemical yields and time delays identical to those we previously assumed for the solar neighbourhood, but assuming (in addition to infall) non-selective galactic winds and burst-like modes of star formation represented by discontinuous variations in the star formation rate per unit gas mass. We find adequate agreement with age-metallicity relations and element:element ratios within their substantial uncertainties, whereas our LMC model turns out to give an excellent fit to the anomalous Galactic halo stars discovered by Nissen &Schuster (1997). It also gives a larger current SNIa/SNII ratio than in the solar neighbourhood, due to the assumption that the SFR has declined in the past 1 to 2 Gyr.
  147. Not Available
  148. We have extended our analytical chemical evolution modelling ideas for the Galaxy to the Magellanic Clouds. Unlike previous authors (Russell & Dopita, Tsujimoto et al. and Pilyugin), we assume neither a steepened initial mass function nor selective galactic winds, since among the alpha-particle elements only oxygen shows a large deficit relative to iron and a similar deficit is also found in Galactic supergiants. Thus we assume yields and time delays identical to those that we previously assumed for the solar neighbourhood. We include inflow and non-selective galactic winds and consider both smooth and bursting star formation rates, the latter giving a better fit to the age-metallicity relations. We predict essentially solar abundance ratios for primary elements and these seem to fit most of the data within their substantial scatter. Our model for the Large Magellanic Cloud also gives a remarkably good fit to the anomalous Galactic halo stars discovered by Nissen & Schuster. Our models predict current ratios of Type Ia supernova to core-collapse supernova rates enhanced by 50 and 25 per cent respectively relative to the solar neighbourhood, in fair agreement with ratios found by Cappellaro et al. for Sdm-Im relative to Sbc galaxies, but these ratios are sensitive to detailed assumptions about the bursts and a still higher enhancement in the Large Magellanic Cloud has been deduced from X-ray studies of remnants by Hughes et al. The corresponding ratios integrated over time up to the present are slightly below 1, but they exceed 1 if one compares the Magellanic Clouds with the Galaxy at times when it had the corresponding metallicities.
  149. We apply the analytical model developed previously to the Galactic chemical evolution of elements that in the Solar system come primarily from the s-process, but at low metallicities are believed to come primarily from the r- process. We find that a `primary' production model is indicated for the s-process, but with two separate time delays that are treated in the `delayed production' approximation and turn out to be of the order of 37 Myr and 2.7 Gyr, corresponding to progenitor masses of about 8 and 1.5 Msolar respectively. While the latter component fits in well with current models of s-process synthesis of material in the Solar system, the early component raises some difficulties because asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars of high mass and low metallicity are observed to generate a high ratio of heavy to light s-process elements, whereas the field stars presumed to represent the effects of Galactic chemical evolution still have Solar system-like heavy to light ratios.
  150. High-dispersion spectra of 10 red horizontal branch (RHB) stars of the galactic field were obtained on the 6-m Special Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) telescope to investigate abundances of up to 22 chemical elements. This constitutes the largest single high-resolution abundance study of RHB stars located in the galactic field. Abundance trends in the range of -1.9<=[Fe/H]<=-0.2 are compared with results for dwarfs and red giants, as well as with theoretical trends. For five metal-deficient stars of the sample, a slight overabundance of oxygen is revealed. The results for alpha-process elements match theoretical predictions; only [Mg/Fe], for almost all stars, is below the theoretical trend. Almost all stars of the sample closely follow the solar [Na/Fe] ratio; only for the two most metal-abundant stars is sodium overabundant by 0.2-0.3dex. A comparison of the available abundances of atmospheres for the RHB stars with those for giants and dwarfs shows a good fit for the iron group elements and for other heavier elements; thus, RHB stars may also serve for Galactic chemical evolution studies.
  151. A simple method of accounting for correlation effects in complex atoms and ions, having several open electronic shells, is described. It is based on the use of the so-called transformed radial orbitals to describe the admixed electronic configurations in the framework of the superposition-of-configurations method. The method has been applied to calculate the energy spectra and oscillator strengths of electric dipole transitions in neutral and singly ionized zirconium. On the basis of new values of oscillator strengths, the photospheric abundance of zirconium is found to be A_Zr=log (N_Zr/N_H)+12.00=2.60+/-0.06 and, being in close agreement with the meteoritic abundance, illustrates the reasonable accuracy of the proposed method.
  152. A brief review is presented on the current progress of the photometric identification of the field red horizontal-branch stars (RHB) in the UBV, Geneva, Stromgren, Vilnius and DDO photometric systems. Stars of this type have been identified in most of structural components of the Galaxy: bulge, thin disk, thick disk and halo. However, the number of these stars and the available data about them are not sufficient for an investigation of the morphology of their color-magnitude diagram and their space density.
  153. Theoretical isochrones for the initial chemical composition [Z=0.0004, Y=0.23], [Z=0.004, Y=0.24], [Z=0.008, Y=0.25] and [Z=0.02, Y=0.28] and ages in the range 4* 10(6) yr to 16* 10(9) yr are presented in the observational plane of the Vilnius photometric system. The isochrones have been calculated from stellar models computed with the most recent radiative opacities by Iglesias et al. (1992) using the same procedure as described by Bertelli et al. (1994). All stellar models were followed from the zero age main sequence (ZAMS) to the central carbon ignition for massive stars or to the beginning of the thermally pulsing regime of the asymptotic giant branch phase (TP-AGB) for low and intermediate mass stars. For each isochrone, we give the current mass, effective temperatures, bolometric and visual magnitudes, U--P, P--X, X--Y, Y--Z, Z--V and V--S color indices of the Vilnius photometric system and the luminosity function for the case of the Salpeter law.
  154. Not Available
  155. The photometric observations and three-dimensional classification in the Vilnius system have been carried out for 13 of the red horizontal branch (RHB) stars in the Galactic thick disk identified by Rose (1985). The photometric spectral types, metallicities [Fe/H], effective temperatures, surface gravities and absolute magnitudes are determined. The age of about 10--12 Gyr is evaluated for this group of stars from comparison with model isochrones, indicating that the age of the thick disk is intermediate between the disk globular and the oldest open clusters.
  156. We model the evolution of abundances of oxygen, iron, alpha and r-process elements in the Galactic disc using the instantaneous and delayed production approximations which enable the problem to be handled analytically. In addition to using the new greatly improved data published by Edvardsson et al. and the oxygen abundance distribution function of G dwarfs in the solar neighbourhood as improved by Sommer-Larsen, we take into account new survey data on metal-deficient stars which show that the thick-disc population extends to arbitrarily low metallicities, meaning that a significant proportion of stars previously classified as belonging to the halo, on grounds of low metallicity, actually belong to the disc and should be modelled as such, without bringing in any prior phase associated with the halo. Comparison with theoretical yields from Type II and Type Ia supernovae shows good agreement, as has previously been found by Tsujimoto et al. using a different approach.
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  160. A new semiempirical surface gravity calibration of the intrinsic color indices U-P and U-X of the Vilnius photometric system is presented. It is applicable for giants of all metallicities with temperatures from 4200 K to 5500 K and log g from 0.5 dex to 3.0 dex. The standard deviation of the observed minus predicted log g residuals is about +/- 0.3 dex. The U-P color index is found to be a very good surface gravity indicator, and it can be used for log g determination even when other atmospheric parameters (temperature and metallicity) are poorly known. The main atmospheric parameters for 93 red metal-deficient giants are determined from color indices of the Vilnius system and compared with the evolutionary isochrones.
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  162. The results of photometric classification in the Vilnius system of 117 Population II supergiants, suspected supergiants, and related stars are given. Their photometric spectral types, intrinsic color indices (Y-V)0, color excesses E(Y-V), metallicities Fe/H, and absolute magnitudes MV are determined. It is shown that the system allows us to detect the UU Herculis-type supergiants photometrically. The analyzed SRd star sample falls into two groups of metallicity and luminosity. Our photometric classification assigns luminosity classes from III to V to 37 F-K stars with /b/ greater than 16 deg classified by Bartaya (1979) from objective prism spectra as supergiants.
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  165. On the basis of high-dispersion spectrograms obtained using the Main Stellar Spectrograph of the 6-m telescope of the Special Astrophysical Observatory, the authors establish the basic physical parameters and abundances of 19 elements in the atmospheres of the two stars, which are candidates for belonging to the red horizontal branch of the Galactic field. It is found that the ratios [O/Fe], [Na/Fe] and [Si/Fe] in the stars are enhanced; the ratios of other elements are close to the solar values.
  166. High dispersion spectra obtained using the 6-m telescope of the Special Astrophysical Observatory were used to determine the atmosphere parameters and chemical composition of 11 G - K giants of differing metallicity, and four stars were reanalyzed on the basis of the equivalent line widths given in the literature. It was found that the content of the light metals Na, Mg, Ca and Ti is enriched in relation to Fe in giants of the galactic halo. The sodium content is elevated in giants of the disk as well. The ratios of the Sc, V, Cr, Co, Ni and Zn to Fe contents do not exhibit appreciable departures from the solar values. In halo giants, [Mn/Fe] is slightly reduced. A substantial overdeficit of Cu was detected. An "odd/even" effect was found for the elements of the iron group. The [Y/H] and [Ba/H] ratios are reduced in halo giants, while the [Ce/H], [Nd/H] and [Sm/H] remain at roughly their solar values.
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  169. The results of photometric classification in the Vilnius system of 117 Population II supergiants (the UU Herculis-type stars) and related stars are given. The system allows to detect these stars photometrically. The supergiant HD 34250 is recognized to belong to UU Herculis-type stars. The authors find that 24 supergiants are located farther than 400 pc from the galactic plane. The photometric classification assigns luminosity classes from III to V to 37 F-K stars with |b| > 18° previously classified by Bartaya (1979) as supergiants.
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  174. Effective temperatures, surface gravities and chemical composition parameters [Fe/H] and [Ca/H] are derived for 43 G and K giants of various metallicities by means of medium dispersion spectra obtained with a multichannel spectrophotometer of the 6-meter telescope and photoelectric photometry in the Vilnius seven-color photometric system. Calcium is overabundant with respect to iron by 0.5±0.2 dex for stars with [Fe/H] < -1 and there is a tendency of increase of this overabundance with decreasing metallicity.
  175. Color indices of the Vilnius photometric system are calibrated in effective temperatures Te and surface gravities g for 110 metal-deficient field G and K giants. Positions of these stars in the log g, log Te diagram are compared with evolutionary tracks and isochrones, as well as with giant sequences of globular clusters. This diagram can be used to estimate the evolutionary stage of stars having only photometric data.
  176. Three-dimensional photometric classification in the Vilnius system is carried out for 78 stars. The photometric spectral type (spectral class + luminosity class + metallicity class), intrinsic color index (Y-V)0, color excess EY-V, metallicity [Fe/H], and the absolute magnitude are determined.
  177. The results of photoelectric photomety of 78 metal-deficient G - K giants in the Vilnius system are given. Part of the measured stars are suspected red horizontal branch and asymptotic giant branch stars. Three stars are weak G-band giants, two stars are SRd type variables.
  178. Not Available
  179. The atmospheric extinction coefficients for the color indices of the Stromgren uvby medium-band photometric system are analyzed by the method of numerical integration. It is shown that the extinction coefficients for the color indices u-y and the indices a(1) depend in a complicated way on the spectral class and luminosity of the star and on its interstellar reddening. Neglect of this dependence leads to inconstancy of the color system of indices c(1) and to systematic errors, reaching 0.04 mag at a zenith distance of 60 deg. To allow for this effect, it is proposed to use atmospheric extinction coefficients not dependent on interstellar reddening, calculated through photometric parameters Q that are not dependent on interstellar reddening.
  180. A method for metallicity determination of G-K giants using spectra of 50 Å/mm dispersion is proposed. It is based on theoretical interpretation of central intensities of strong Fe I lines using model stellar atmospheres. Temperatures and metallicities for 20 G-K metal-deficient giants and 7 normal giants are determined.
  181. The photometry of G and K subdwarfs is analyzed in order to determine their metallicity using a system invented by the Lithuanian Academy of Sciences (the Vilnius method). The Vilnius method permits the recognition of F-G-K subdwarfs in conditions of interstellar reddening. For quantitative interpretation of line strengths, a group of synthetic spectrum calculations were used. A series of diagrams is provided which illustrates the photometric data.